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Civil Rights Movement and Leaders. Theory of Civil Disobedience. Refusing to obey unjust laws by following these rules: The disobedience must be public, not secret, because the purpose of the disobedience is to show the law is unjust

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theory of civil disobedience
Theory of Civil Disobedience
  • Refusing to obey unjust laws by following these rules:
    • The disobedience must be public, not secret, because the purpose of the disobedience is to show the law is unjust
    • Even though the law is unjust, the person who practices civil disobedience must accept the penalty for disobeying it
rosa parks
Rosa Parks
  • On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks, age 42, refused to obey the bus driver order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger
  • She was arrested and this helped lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • NAACP planned test to challenge practice of forcing African Americans citizens to ride on back of bus
  • Martin Luther King Jr. chosen as spokesman
  • December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956
martin luther king
Martin Luther King
  • Born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1929
  • Lived in middle-class family
  • Attended Morehouse College
    • Studied theology
    • Particularly believed in Ghandi’s nonviolent resistance – expose injustice and force it to end
mlk s supporters
MLK’s Supporters
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott was what made King famous
  • 1957 – brought together 100 black ministers to find SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Committee
    • Southern black church leaders of the Civil Rights Movement
little rock 9
Little Rock 9
  • September 1957 – schools order to begin desegregation
  • Gov. Faubus – campaigning for reelection – defied court order
    • National Guard troops sent to Central High
  • Faubus withdrew the troops – students left to white mob
    • September 24th – Arkansas National Guard sent in under federal control – 101st Airborne protected students
nonviolent movement sit ins
Nonviolent Movement: Sit-Ins
  • February 1960 – 4 black students sat down at white only lunch counter at Woolworths
  • Sit in leads to the start of an economic boycott
  • Within 18 months – 70,000 people participated in sit-ins – 3,000 arrested
  • New form of direct action protest – dignified and powerful
march on washington
March on Washington
  • August 28, 1963 – 250,000 people gathered
  • MLK gives “I Have a Dream” speech
i have a dream
“I Have a Dream”
16 th st baptist chucrch bombing
16th St Baptist Chucrch Bombing
  • September 15, 1963
assassination of mlk jr
Assassination of MLK Jr.
  • April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN by James Earl Ray at the Loraine Motel
malcom x
Malcom X
  • Born in 1925 – Malcolm Little
    • preacher father – murdered by whites
    • Drifts into life of crime – sent to jail – finds Nation of Islam
  • Nation of Islam – create a self-reliant, highly disciplined, separate “nation” for blacks
    • Used “X” to symbolize loss of slave name
  • Time for nonviolence had passed
  • Separated himself from Nation of Islam after pilgrimage to Mecca – break sets of struggle – leads to assassination in February 1965
black power
Black Power
  • Argued for right to use violence for self-defense
  • African American mobilization for control of economic and political power
  • Separation of societies
  • Black Panthers established – citizen patrols because African Americans could not trust white police force
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • August 1965 – LBJ signs law
    • Authorizes federal supervision of voting registration processes
    • Outlawed literacy and other discriminatory tests
thurgood marshall
Thurgood Marshall
  • 1st African American to serve on the US Supreme Court
  • Lawyer that argued in favor of Brown v Board of Education
affirmative action
Affirmative Action
  • Affirmative action is action taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded
bakke v the regents of california
Bakke v the Regents of California
  • Bakke was refused admission to medical school even though he scored higher on admissions tests than some minority applicants
  • Supreme Court ruled that his 14th amendment rights were violated
cesar chavez
Cesar Chavez
  • Mexican American civil rights leader
  • Organized grape farmers to strike and led to better conditions for migrant farmers
watergate scandal
Watergate Scandal
  • 5 burglars were caught breaking into the Democratic Headquarters in the Watergate hotel in D.C. in 1972
  • Tape recording linked Nixon to the crime
  • Facing impeachment, he became the only president to resign in August 1974