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Solar Power Converter. Senior Design Project David Kline, Jet-Sun Lin, Ting-Hau Ho. Goals of the Project. Create an efficient means to collect, convert, and store solar energy in a battery Create a monitoring and switching circuit to control charging/discharging cycles

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solar power converter

Solar Power Converter

Senior Design Project

David Kline, Jet-Sun Lin, Ting-Hau Ho

goals of the project
Goals of the Project
  • Create an efficient means to collect, convert, and store solar energy in a battery
  • Create a monitoring and switching circuit to control charging/discharging cycles
  • Convert stored energy from battery to a 120V(ac) output
stage 1 solar panel
Stage 1. Solar Panel
  • Obtained from Prof. Krein
  • In direct sunlight:
    • Voc=22.2 V
    • Isc=300mA
  • Resulting in power output of 6.66W
  • Incident power expected=260W (based on 0.2m2 panel and 1300W/m2 solar constant)
  • Efficiency=2.56%
stage 2 dc step down
Stage 2. DC Step-Down
  • Design Based on MaximMAX724
  • PWM Regulated LC circuit
  • Converts 14.25-24+ V tosteady 13.8V (adjustable via turnpot) up to 5A
  • Original design based on Maxim MAX830 scrapped due to pinout/size considerations
stage 2 dc step down6
Stage 2. DC-Step Down
  • Steady Voltage over entire range of solar panel inputs (14.25-24+ V)
  • Efficiency: 76%
stage 3 monitor switch
Stage 3. Monitor & Switch
  • Relay-based design using Magnecraft W60HE1S-12DC and W60HE2S-12DC
  • Original voltage monitor design based on Maxim MAX8215 scrapped
  • Final Voltage Monitoring Circuit based on LM741CN op-amps
  • Monitoring Circuit is adjustable with turnpot
  • Precision up to 0.01V
stage 3 monitor switch9
Stage 3. Monitor & Switch
  • 13V Voltage Monitor switches at Vbatt=12.98V
stage 3 monitor switch10
Stage 3. Monitor & Switch
  • Voltage monitor A (11 V) (Green LED):
    • V (battery) >11V: connect DC/AC converter with battery.
    • V (battery) <11V: disconnect DC/AC converter from battery.
stage 3 monitor switch11
Stage 3. Monitor & Switch
  • Voltage monitor B (13 V) (Red LED):
    • V (battery) >13V: disconnect solar converter from battery.
    • V (battery) <13V: connect solar converter with battery.
stage 4 battery
Stage 4. Battery
  • Genesis EP Series G12V26Ah10EP Lead-Acid
  • Original design based on current monitoring
  • Voltage across terminals varies during charging cycle
  • Discharge reversal electro-chemical process
stage 5 dc ac inverter
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • PWM Process
  • Compare 60Hz sine wave to 75kHz triangle wave resulting in PWM signal driving MOSFETs
stage 5 dc ac inverter15
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • ICL8038 generating 60Hz sine wave
    • Vpp=2.55-3.0V (depending on Vbatt)
    • DC offset of ½ Vbatt
  • SG3525 generating 75kHz triangle wave
    • Vpp=3.0V
    • DC offset of 1.5V
  • The two waveforms are required to be on same scale, so a coupling circuit was added
stage 5 dc ac inverter16
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • SG3525 provides 2 outputs to drive the 2 complementary MOSFET pairs
  • A MIC4424 MOSFET driver amplifies the PWM signal and provides a high-impedance output to the MOSFETs
stage 5 dc ac inverter17
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • Full-Bridge inverter driven by PWM
stage 5 dc ac inverter18
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • Current must flow through load
  • Current must never be allowed to flow directly through a single leg to ground
  • Low drain to source resistance of MOSFET causes very high current to flow and damages MOSFET
  • PWM timing is important to prevent burn-out
stage 5 dc ac inverter19
Stage 5. DC/AC Inverter
  • MOSFETs have switching time of 72ns
  • SG3525 was set to provide “dead time” of 1.2μs
  • Inverter output stepped up using a 10:117V transformer
results analysis
Results & Analysis
  • Able to obtain VOC=110Vac(rms)
  • With load connected, Vout=0.34Vac(rms)
  • Transformer is likely becoming saturated and cannot provide the necessary voltage and current
results analysis21
Results & Analysis
  • 80% Efficiency on DC/AC Inverter for most loads
  • Overall Efficiency of Converter: 60.8%