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  1. Hearing / Pronunciation--Problems and Solutions Adapted from presentations for The English Pronunciation Transcription Association And The Ibaraki Prefecture Board of Education Frank Berberich frank@tokiwa.ac.jp Tokiwa University Department of English and American Studies

  2. Today’s plan • What is Hearing / Pronunciation? • Why teach it? • Some physiology and psychology • Language pairs – Japanese-English • Five problems in the J-E language pair • Some solutions

  3. Some Physiology and Psychology • The auditory system • Perception and cognition • The telephone theory • The continuum theory • Categorical perception

  4. The Auditory System

  5. Some Physiology and Psychology • The auditory system • Perception and cognition • The telephone theory • The continuum theory • Categorical perception

  6. Perception and cognition The telephone theory A direct link from sensor to thinker The continuum theory Processing happens along the path between the sensor and thinker

  7. The Auditory System A continuum of change change change change change change change

  8. Some Physiology and Psychology • The auditory system • Perception and cognition • The telephone theory • The continuum theory • Categorical perception

  9. VVV???BBBBBBBBB??GGGGGGGGGGGG??YY?OOORRRRRRRR What is green, blue? Categorical Perception Categoricalperception of color

  10. Recognition-- /ba/, /ga/, or /ba/? Discrimination-- same or different?

  11. J-E /r/ /l/ Recognition-- “It’s [ra].” /ra/ /la/ Discrimination-- Same or different?

  12. Change about 10 months

  13. Change about 10 months

  14. When change Hin/Sal > E-kids

  15. Chinchilla

  16. What is Hearing / Pronunciation? • Why teach it? • Some physiology and psychology • Language pairs – Japanese-English • Five problems in the J-E pair • Some solutions

  17. Language Pairs J E K D J E

  18. What is Hearing / Pronunciation? • Why teach it? • Some physiology and psychology • Language pairs – Japanese-English • Five problems in the J-E pair • Some solutions

  19. Five problems in the J - E pair • English speech and writing are different ghoti  / ?/ linking: This is a book  / thi si za book / • Phonemes (sounds) --- /th/, /l/, /sh/, /s/ • The “extra” vowel -- /thi su i su a boo ku/ • The second language of Japan and カタカナ -- カメラ or カムラ? • Rhythm and timing -- "The CAT is ON the MAT"

  20. What is Hearing / Pronunciation? • Why teach it? • Some physiology and psychology • Language pairs – Japanese-English • Five problems in the J-E pair • Some solutions

  21. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation -- a little different way

  22. Examples of Phonics

  23. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation -- a little different way

  24. she sheep shield sheen sheer see seep sealed seen sear The pointing game(1) (2)

  25. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation -- a little different way

  26. Using Japanese preparations for English sounds To make an English /th/ (‘the’) sound, prepare with Japanese /タ/, loosen, aspirate, voice For /l/, prepare with /タ/, loosen, voice, vowel For /r/, prepare with /カ/, loosen,voice

  27. Question: What are some “big payoff” sounds?

  28. Question: What are some “big payoff” sounds? Those that are: frequent not in Japanese

  29. Question: What are some “big payoff” sounds? Those that are: frequent not in Japanese Examples: /th/, /v/, /f/, /s/, ….

  30. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ --> /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation -- a little different way

  31. Two versions of a famous word

  32. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ --> /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation -- a little different way

  33. A Poem Twinkle, twinkle little star, How I wonder what you are. Up above the earth so high, Like a diamond in the sky. ^ --- ^ --- ^ --- ---

  34. Some solutions • Phonics • Contrastive pairs -- the pointing game • Preparation sounds -- /t/ --> /l/ • Cutting the “extra” vowel -- a famous word • Counting syllables -- poetry • Dictation – you know this…

  35. Hearing / Pronunciation--Problems and Solutions THANK YOU! Frank Berberich frank@tokiwa.ac.jp Tokiwa University Department of English and American Studies