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Chapter 2
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  1. Chapter 2 The French and Indian War

  2. The French & Indian War • evidence of the rivalry among European nations • the British and the American colonists fought against the French and their Indian allies

  3. Causes • both countries claimed land • both wanted access to the beaver pelt trade • both wanted the fertile fishing grounds in Canada • Protestant British settlers felt that the French Catholics represented a threat to their religious freedom

  4. Who wants the new land in North America? • England • France • Spain • Netherlands

  5. English colonies most threatened by France • New France • St. Lawrence River west to Great Lakes • South to Gulf of Mexico • many forts

  6. French - fur trappers and traders Allies – Algonquins, Hurons English - farmers Allies – Iroquois (charged lower prices than French for goods) Joseph Brant William Johnson Most Conflicts Were in the Ohio River Valley

  7. In England the French and Indian War was called the Seven Year’s War English Leader – George Washington from VA • sent to build a fort where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio River • France already had a fort there – Fort Duquesne • Washington surrenders – French release the English

  8. Albany Plan of Union • seven colonies gathered in Albany, NY to confirm alliance with Iroquois • plan for a permanent union of the colonies to unite colonial defense • Benjamin Franklin – delegate • Grand Council – representative from each colony (delegates elected by their colonial legislature)

  9. would make laws, raise taxes, set up defense system • Not one colonial assembly approved the plan. • Colonies did not want to give up their powers to others. • was rejected, but would provide a model for the later government of the United States

  10. British Gen. Edward Braddock • led colonial troops to attack Fort Duquesne • Indians – surprise attack – pick off British soldiers in bright red uniforms • Braddock – 5 horses shot out from under him – fatally wounded • Washington – nearly killed

  11. France won important victories, capturing Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry New British leader – William Pitt – promised large payments for military services and supplies to gain colonial support for war Britain captured Louisbourg (most impt. fort in French Canada) and seized Fort Duquesne (renamed Fort Pitt; later city of Pittsburgh grows there)

  12. British continue to Win • Captured Fort Niagara, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga, and … • Quebec – capital of New France The fall of Quebec was the end for New France. Turning Point of the War

  13. Battle of Quebec • James Wolfe – British commander • ferried men across the Saint Lawrence River • organized a diversion • under dark they crept to a back trail • French speaking soldiers in the front boats helped to dispatch sentries • at sunup there were 3,500 troops on the Plains of Abraham

  14. Treaty of Paris of 1763 • marked end of French power in North America • Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River (except for New Orleans) • France keeps two islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence and islands in West Indies

  15. Spain (on French side) gave up Florida to Britain • Spain received all French land west of the MS River • Spain gained the port city of New Orleans

  16. The Acadians • forced to leave Nova Scotia during war (Great Expulsion of 1755) • refused to swear allegiance to Britain • many of these people later settled in Louisiana • they are the precursors of the Cajun population today

  17. Strained Relations • British thought the colonists did not provide enough support for the long and costly war that Britain fought to protect them • French no longer held the area west of the Appalachian Mountains; so colonists saw no reason for them not to expand and prosper on their own without British help