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Update of Carbon Storage Field Projects. Susan D. Hovorka Bureau of Economic Geology Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin. Presentation to Underground Injection Control (UIC) Educational Track 2007 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Trade Fair & Conference

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update of carbon storage field projects

Update of Carbon Storage Field Projects

Susan D. Hovorka

Bureau of Economic Geology

Jackson School of Geosciences

The University of Texas at Austin

Presentation to Underground Injection Control (UIC) Educational Track

2007 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Trade Fair & Conference

Wednesday, May 2, 2007

status of knowledge about ccs carbon capture and storage
Well Known

Trapping mechanisms

Monitoring strategies to image and quantify plume evolution

Validity of modeling approaches – modification of existing simulators

Major leakage risks

Volume of storage US, Australia, Japan, Europe

Poorly Known

Modeling/monitoring in low permeability rocks

Monitoring to detect low rates of leakage over long time frames

Performance of non-matrix systems (coal, basalt)

Risks resulting from very large scale-up

Volume of storage in developing nations

Performance of faults, wells

Status of Knowledge About CCS**Carbon Capture and Storage
sources of knowledge
Sources of Knowledge
  • IPCC Special Report on Geologic Storage
    • Rapidly evolving field, IPCC report used only peer reviewed literature
  • US and international networks
    • NETL updates www.netl.doe.gov/publications/carbon_seq/
    • CO2 GeoNet www.co2geonet.com/
    • CCP www.co2captureproject.org
    • IEA Greenhouse http://www.co2captureandstorage.info
  • Large number of meetings
    • examples: GHGT, NETL annual CCS meeting, EPA working groups, IEA GHG R&D Networks
trapping mechanisms structural traps

Well known performance of

shale seals in trapping oil and gas,

Texas Gulf Coast

Observed performance of siltstones

in retarding CO2 migration, Utsira FM,

Sliepner field, North Sea

Shale seals

In white

Top seal

Bright injected CO2

in sand

Light siltstone

baffles

Sandstones

Cornelius Reservoir Markham No. Bay City No. field

Tyler and Ambrose (1986)

http://www.bgs.ac.uk/science/co2/Sleipner_figs_02.html

Trapping Mechanisms: Structural Traps

Successful use of 4-D seismic

for monitoring CO2 plume

trapping regional setting of utsira
Trapping: Regional Setting of Utsira

Source: SACS Best Practices Manual

http://www.co2store.org/TEK/FOT/SVG03178.nsf/Attachments/SACSBestPractiseManual.pdf/$FILE/SACSBestPractiseManual.pdf

frio brine pilot site two test intervals
Frio Brine Pilot Sitetwo test intervals

Injection

interval

  • Injection intervals: mineralogically complex Oligocene fluvial and reworked fluvial sandstones, porosity 24%, permeability 4.4 to 2.5 Darcys
  • Steeply dipping 11 to 16 degrees
  • Seals  numerous thick shales, small fault block
  • Depth 1,500 and 1657 m
  • Brine-rock system, no hydrocarbons
  • 150 and 165 bar, 53 -60 degrees C, supercritical CO2

Fresh water (USDW) zone

protected by surface casing

Injection zones:

First experiment 2004: Frio “C”

Second experiment 2006 Frio “Blue”

Oil production

trapping mechanism frio site reservoir model

In context of the plume, injection was in an open aquifer

Trapping Mechanism:Frio Site Reservoir Model

Fault planes

Porosity

Observation well

Injection well

Monitoring

injection and monitoring

Knox, Fouad, Yeh, BEG

two phase residual gas trapping

Phase-trapped

CO2

Injection of CO2

Two-Phase Residual Gas Trapping

Imbibition Drainage

Grains

Brine – filled pores

co 2 trapping as a residual phase
CO2 Trapping as a Residual Phase

Residual gas saturation of 5%

  • Plume in open aquifer spreads quickly updip
  • Plume in an open aquifer is trapped before it moves very far

Observation well

Injection well

Residual gas saturation of 30%

TOUGH2 simulations

C. Doughty LBNL

monitoring using oil field type technologies is successful in tracking co 2

Aquifer wells (4)

Downhole

P&T

Monitoring Using Oil-field Type Technologies is Successful in Tracking CO2

Gas

wells

Access tubes, gas sampling

Frio Brine Pilot: Determine the subsurface distribution of injected CO2 using diverse monitoring technologies

Downhole sampling

U-tube

Gas lift

Wireline

logging

Radial VSP

Cross well Seismic, EM

Tracers

monitoring design frio 2

RST logs

Tubing hung

seismic source

and hydrophones

Monitoring Design Frio 2

Injection Well

Observation Well

U-tubes

50 m

Packers

Downhole P and T

Frio “Blue”

Sandstone

15m thick

slide14

Injection well

Observation well

west pearl queen

Los Alamos National Laboratory

West Pearl Queen
  • Injection interval 7 m arkosic sandstone, oil reservoir, Permian Queen Formation
  • 18% porosity, 5 -30 md
  • Structural dome trap - carbonate/evaporite seals
  • Depth - 1350 m
  • 96 bar
  • CO2 trapped by residual saturation + dissolution in water and oil
    • 62% retainedunder production

Representative of the

Permian Basin

Bill Cary

slide18

Trapping Dissolution of CO2 into Brine

1yr

40 yr

930 yr

1330 yr

5 yr

130 yr

30 yr

330 yr

2330 yr

Jonathan Ennis-King, CO2CRC

Jonathan Ennis-King, CSIRO Australia

trapping frio tracer breakthough curves show significant dissolution of co 2 into brine
Trapping: Frio Tracer Breakthough Curves Show Significant Dissolution of CO2 into Brine

Barry Friefeld, LBNL; Tommy Phelps ORNL

setting the standard for monitoring iea weyburn project
Setting the Standard for Monitoring:IEA Weyburn project
  • Devonian Midale carbonate
  • Successful semi-quantitative monitoring of CO2 plume migration using 4-D seismic: 20% P-wave difference post injection

IEA Weyburn CO2 Storage and Monitoring Project

combining co 2 storage research with oil production
Combining CO2 storage research with oil production
  • Large, high technology, well-supported research Phase I , $21 M, numerous international partners
  • Complex environment containing oil, production, field operations

Petroleum Technology

Research Centre (PTRC)

Encana, governments

University, Provincial, private

no suitable method for detecting slow leakage
No Suitable Method for Detecting Slow Leakage
  • Current monitoring: noise is large, precision is moderate
  • If flux is low, .01 to 1 % of stored volume/year
  • Cumulative impact to atmosphere would be unacceptable

Weyburn Soil Gas Survey

monitoring techniques at nagaoka site injection into a heterogeneous rock volume
Monitoring Techniques at Nagaoka site: injection into a heterogeneous rock volume
  • Pleistocene Haizume Fm: 12 m thick mineralogically immature submarine sandstone
  • 10’s mD core analysis, <10 mD hydrologic test, about 20% porosity
  • 15 degree dip on flank of anticline
  • 10,400 tones CO2

Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) and collaborators

http://uregina.ca/ghgt7/PDF/papers/nonpeer/273.pdf

monitoring using cross well seismic at nagaoka site
Monitoring using cross well-seismic at Nagaoka site
  • Logging though non-metallic casing using induction, neutron, sonic detected breakthough after injection 4000 tones 40 m away
  • Cross well tomography imaged plume but failed to detect breakthough
  • 4-D seismic suggests strongly anisotropic CO2 movement

http://www.rite.or.jp/English/about/plng_survy/todaye/todaytre/RTtr_co2seq.pdf

subsurface monitoring above injection zones a proposed solution to complexity
Subsurface Monitoring Above Injection Zones – a Proposed Solution to Complexity
  • Close to perturbation
  • Quiescent relative to the surface
  • High signal to noise ratio

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Vadose zone & soil

Aquifer and USDW

Seal

Monitoring Zone

Seal

CO2 plume

slide26

A)

Adequacy of Modeling: CO2 Saturation Observed with Cross-well Seismic Tomography vs. Modeled: Frio example

Observation well

100 ft

Cross-Well Seismic Tomogram

Injection well

(B)

X-well is a cross section of the plume

Tom Daley and Christine Doughty LBNL

low permeability is typical more studies needed in tight rocks
Low Permeability is Typical:more studies needed in tight rocks

Hydraulic conductivity

m/day

<.0.01

.01-0.1

0.1 -1

1 – 10

>10

Mixed data types – core, well tests, and models

slide29
Inject 1 million tones/year of CO2 from gas processing facility

Injection into water leg of same reservoir

800 m-ling horizontals

5-10 mD Pennsylvanian sandstone

Injection underway

Large monitoring project mobilized – 4-D seismic, soil gas, microseismic array

Successful Use of Horizontal Well Technology in Low Permeability Sandstones – BP In Salah Project, Algeria

Ian Wright, BP

http://ior.rml.co.uk/issue11/events/past/spe/

example of the global question of capacity deccan traps india
Example of the Global Question of Capacity: Deccan Traps, India

PNNL and Geothermal Energy

India.

layered basalt role for geochemical trapping
Layered Basalt – Role for Geochemical Trapping?
  • Thick section – > 2000 m, large volume
  • Layered lower and higher permeability
  • Seal performance is uncertain
  • High reactivity with CO2 - formation of minerals
  • So could CO2 be retained long enough to be trapped by mineral reactions?

Fill and Spill with reaction with Basalt

An example of need for assessment of quality and quantity of geologic storage outside of the US

otway basin project australia
Otway Basin Project -Australia
  • Planned injection of 100,000 tones of natural CO2 into Cretaceous Warre sandstone depleted gas reservoir
  • Large volume injection
  • Fault seal – will test fault stability under injection
  • Test monitoring in the presence of gas
well understood risk unexpected results of injection

Substitute

underground

injection for air

release

Escape to

groundwater,

surface water,

or air via long

flowpath

Earthquake

Escape of CO2

or brine to

groundwater,

surface water

or air through

flaws in the seal

Failure of well cement or

casing resulting in leakage

Well Understood Risk:Unexpected Results of Injection
risk in terms of exceeding capacity
Risk in Terms of Exceeding Capacity
  • Spill from structure
  • Exceed fracture pressure of seal
  • Far-field effects – leakage of brine from injection interval

Reservoir

Large scale-up

Very large scale-up

status of knowledge about ccs
Well Known

Trapping mechanisms

Monitoring strategies to image and quantify plume evolution

Validity of modeling approaches – modification of existing simulators

Major leakage risks

Volume of storage US, Australia, Japan, Europe

Poorly Known

Modeling/monitoring in low permeability rocks

Monitoring to detect low rates of leakage over long time frames

Performance of non-matrix systems (coal, basalt)

Risks resulting from very large scale-up

Volume of storage in developing nations

Performance of faults, wells

Status of Knowledge About CCS