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Chapter 2. Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships. The Trait Approach. Traits : the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearance.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships

the trait approach
The Trait Approach

Traits: the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearance

Great Man Approach: a leadership perspective that sought to identify the inherited traits leaders possessed that distinguished them from people who were not leaders

ex 2 1 personal characteristics of leaders
Personal Characteristics

Energy

Physical stamina

Intelligence and Ability

Intelligence, cognitive ability

Knowledge

Judgment, decisiveness

Personality

Self-confidence

Honesty and integrity

Enthusiasm

Desire to lead

Independence

Social Characteristics

Sociability, interpersonal skills

Cooperativeness

Ability to enlist cooperation

Tact, diplomacy

Work-Related Characteristics

Drive, desire to excel

Responsibility in pursuit of goals

Persistence against obstacles, tenacity

Social background

Education

Mobility

Ex. 2.1 Personal Characteristics of Leaders
slide4
Self-confidence: assurance in one’s own judgments, decision making, ideas and capabilities
  • Honesty: truthfulness and nondeception
  • Integrity: the quality of being whole, integrated, authentic, and acting in accordance with solid moral principles that are shared by your constituents.
  • Drive: high motivation that creates a high effort level by a leader
behavior approaches
Behavior Approaches

Autocratic: a leader who tends to centralize authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion

Democratic: a leader who delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence

action memo
Action memo
  • Use a democratic style to help followers develop decision-making skills and perform well without close supervision
  • Adopt an autocratic style when there is time pressure or followers have low skill levels and the leader’s expertise is needed.
ex 2 2 leadership continuum
Ex. 2.2 Leadership Continuum

Subordinate-Centered

Leadership

Boss-Centered

Leadership

Use of authority by manager

Area of freedom for subordinates

Manager makes

decisions and

announces it

Manager presents

ideas and invites

questions

Manager

presents

problems,

gets sugg.

makes

changes

Manager

permits

subordinates

to function

within limits

defined by

superior

Manager

presents tentative

decision subject

to change

Manager

defines limits,

asks group

do make

decision

Manager “sells”

decision

Where do you start with new people or in a new position?

ohio state studies
Ohio State Studies

Consideration: the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust

Initiating Structure: the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement

university of michigan studies
University of Michigan Studies

Employee-centered: a leadership behavior that displays a focus on the human needs of subordinates

Job-centered: leadership behavior in which leaders direct activities toward efficiency, cost cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goals and work facilitation

ex 2 3 the leadership grid figure
Ex. 2.3 The Leadership Grid®Figure

High

9,9

Team Management

1,9

Country Club Management

Concern for People

5,5

Middle-of-the-Road

Management

Authority-Compliance

Management

9,1

Impoverished Management

1,1

Low

Concern for Results

High

Low

high high leader
High-High Leader
  • Show concern for both tasks and people
    • People oriented behavior is related to higher follower satisfaction and fewer personnel problems
    • Task-oriented behavior is typically associated with higher productivity
  • Address both the social and task dimensions to succeed as a leader in a variety of situations
open questions
Open questions
  • Are these 2 dimensions the most important dimensions of leadership?
  • Can people orientation and task orientation exist together in the same leader, and how?
  • Is the “high-high” leadership style situational or universal?
  • Can people actually change themselves into leaders high on people and/or task orientation or both?
ex 2 5 stages of development of individualized leadership
Ex. 2.5 Stages of Development of Individualized Leadership
  • Vertical Dyad Linkage
  • Leaders’ behaviors and traits have different impacts across followers, creating in-groups and out-groups
  • Leader-Member Exchange
  • Leadership is individualized for each subordinate. Each dyad involves a unique exchange independent of other dyads.
  • Partnership Building
  • Leaders can reach out to create a positive exchange with every subordinate. Doing so increases performance.
  • Systems and Networks
  • Leader dyads can be created in all directions across levels and boundaries to build networks that enhance performance.
leader member exchange
Leader-Member Exchange

An individualized leadership model that explores how leader-member relationships develop over time and how the quality of exchange relationships impacts outcomes

ex 2 6 leader behavior toward in group versus out group members
In-group

Discusses objectives; gives employee freedom to use his or her own approach in solving problems and reaching goals

Listens to employee’s suggestions and ideas about how work is done

Treats mistakes as learning opportunities

Out-Group

Gives employee specific directives for how to accomplish tasks and attain goals

Shows little interest in employee’s comments and suggestions

Criticizes or punishes mistakes

Ex. 2.6 Leader Behavior Toward In-Group versus Out-Group Members
ex 2 6 contd
In-Group

Gives employee interesting assignments; may allow employee to choose assignment

Sometimes defers to subordinate’s opinion

Praises accomplishments

Out-Group

Assigns primarily routine jobs and monitors employee closely

Usually imposes own views

Focuses on areas of poor performance

Ex. 2.6 (contd.)
slide18
Build a positive, individualized relationship with each follower rather than treating people as members of an in-group or out-group.
  • Forge a unique, constructive partnership with each person to create an equitable work environment and provide greater benefits to yourself, followers, and the organization.
  • Beware of forming in-groups and out-groups. You will often be self-deceived into believing that they do NOT exist.
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