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  1. The great war World War I: Causes, Technologies, And Consequences

  2. Causes of WwI: militarism • Nations of Europe believed that to be trulygreat, they needed to have a power- ful military. • By 1914, all the Great Powers except Britain had large standing armies • Military experts stressed the importance of being able to quickly mobilize • Militarism: Policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war

  3. Causes of Wwi: Alliances • Chan. Otto Von Bismarck used war to unify Germanyfrom 1864-1871. Saw Franceas greatest threat to peace. • Formed alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy • Originally made treaty with Russia as well, but newly appointed Kaiser Wilhelm let the treaty expire and Russiaeventually formed military alliance with Francein 1894. • Wilhelm invested heavily in navy to rival Britain. Alarmed, Britainformed entente with Franceand Russia

  4. Causes of wwI: imperialism • European nations had formed rivalries over colonial lands • What do we know about imperialism? • All of the wealth and resources could be put behind a war effort • As European countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another grew

  5. Causes of wwI: Nationalism • Deep devotion to one’s nation. • Serves as a unifying force within a country • Resulted in popular support for military

  6. “The powder keg of europe” [bang bang]

  7. BATTLE LINES ARE DRAWN • CENTRAL POWERS: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire • ALLIED POWERS: Russia, France, Britain (all colonies), Japan, Italy, USA

  8. Von schlieffen plan • Designed by Alfred von Schlieffen (duh) • Took new weapons into account, Mathematical plan based on timetables • His plan: Attack France before Russia had chance to attack Germany=end war quickly. • In order to attack France, needed to invade Belgium and attack from that border. • Wilhelm: “Paris for lunch, dinner in St. Petersburg”

  9. War on 2 fronts • Western front -mainly involved France and Britain against Germany -immobile stalemate, resulting in trench warfare • Eastern front -mainly involved Russia against Germany/Austria-Hungary

  10. Trench warfaRe

  11. Technology of war • Lots of recently invented weapons were utilized • Took nation’s time to respond and react, but the industrialization shaped how the war was fought. • All these innovations made offense very difficult • Technology favored defense • Didn’t have to keep loading/unloading – makes it difficult to attack opposing lines. • Longer range weapons

  12. Machine guns • Fully automatic • Could wipe out waves of attackers, making it difficult for forces to advance • Easy to reload

  13. Barbed wire • Greatly aided in defense • Made it difficult to charge on foot or on horse

  14. Heavy artillery • One of the most important factors that shaped warfare in WWI • Could engage targets over 25 miles away. • Shells were massive and had extreme potential for destruction. Shells so heavy, had to be transported by railway. (Weakness?) • Expensive to produce

  15. Poison gas • Thought to be cowardly at first, but usage gradually increased • Quite deadly, also a psychological weapon • 3 types: • Red star: 1915, invented by British • White star: 1915, invented by French • Mustard gas: 1917, invented by Germans “I wish those people who talk about going on with this war whatever it costs could see the soldiers suffering from mustard gas poisoning. Great mustard-coloured blisters, blind eyes, all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke”

  16. Submarines • German pronunciation: “Unterseaboot” or “U-boat” • Invented in 1890

  17. Communication devices • Had to communicate miles and miles away • Telephone and radio utilized • Motorcycles • Courier pigeons • Dog messengers • Human runners

  18. aircraft • Used at beginning of war for reconaissance. • At first, planes were unarmed, one seater, and they had a top speed of 60 mph • Later, planes were used to drop bombs, shoot, and were about 120 mph • Helped artillery correct aim

  19. FROM 2nd from London # 5747. "We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANN Zimmerman Telegram

  20. End of the great war • Attrition: a reduction or decrease in numbers, size, or strength. • Stalemate turned into a “total war,” so the nations were contributing the energy of entire nation towards war • A gruesome contest to see which country could afford to lose the most soldiers. • Attrition of: human lives, resources (food, fuel, ammunition, steel) • Armistice: Warring parties agreed to stop fighting