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HITLER’S EARLY FOREIGN POLICY. Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Need to takeover Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland Conquest of Eastern Europe and Soviet Union for lebenstraum Need to defeat France Future war with U.S. CAUTIOUS AT FIRST.

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hitler s early foreign policy
HITLER’S EARLY FOREIGN POLICY
  • Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
    • Need to takeover Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland
    • Conquest of Eastern Europe and Soviet Union for lebenstraum
    • Need to defeat France
    • Future war with U.S.
cautious at first
CAUTIOUS AT FIRST
  • WHY DID WEST NOT TAKE STEPS TO STOP HITLER WHEN THEY HAD THE CHANCE?
    • At first he acted cautiously
    • Talked of desire for peace
    • Never had predetermined timetable
    • Took advantage of opportunities as they arose, avoided risks, and accepted success when it occurred
    • Emphasized desire to avoid war
    • Stressed that all he wanted to do was make fair changes to Versailles Treaty
1935 1938
1935-1938
  • 1935: announced he would rebuild German military
  • 1936: reoccupies Rhineland
  • 1938: invades and takes over Austria (Anschluss)
    • Holds plebiscite to justify takeover
  • 1938: demands Sudeteland region of Czechoslovakia
munich crisis 1931
MUNICH CRISIS 1931
  • Demands Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia
    • Neville Chamberlain gives in to him at Munich (1938) – epitome of appeasement
    • Chamberlain receives promise that Hitler will leave rest of Czechoslovakia alone
    • Hitler breaks promise after a few months
  • Great Britain and France make up minds to stand up to Hitler next time –when he begins to demand territory from Poland
deal with stalin
DEAL WITH STALIN
  • Hitler signs Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin
    • Soviet Union would not interfere with Nazi invasion of Poland
    • Soviet Union received eastern third of Poland and free hand in the Baltic in exchange
slide6
WAR
  • Nazis invade Poland on September 1, 1939
  • France and Great Britain declare war on Germany and Italy on September 3, 1939
    • But then do nothing concrete to help Poland
    • Sit behind Maginot Line in France and wait for Hitler to attack them
pearl harbor
PEARL HARBOR
  • When Japan announces intention to conquer Malaya and Indonesia, U.S. cuts off oil exports
    • Japan feels threatened by U.S. and links up with Germany and Italy
    • Convinced that U.S. is out to destroy Japanese economy, Japan makes up mind to go ahead with conquest anyway
    • Realizing this will result in war with U.S., Japan decided to strike first and cripple American Pacific Fleet
    • Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
slide8
1940
  • Nazi conquer Poland in six weeks using blitzkreigtactics
  • Phony War (September 1939 – Spring 1940)
  • Hitler invades and captures Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, and Belgium
  • June 1940: Nazis conquer France
    • Puppet government installed in south (Vichy Regime)
    • Nazis take direct control of northern France and Paris
battle of britain
BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • Hitler needs control of skies above English Channel in preparation for invasion
  • Massive battle for air supremacy between German luftwaffe and British RAF (Royal Air Force)
  • Germans would have succeeded if Hitler had sustained attack
  • Switched to indiscriminate bombing of civilian centers
    • British hang on
    • Led by Winston Churchill
invasion of soviet union june 1941
INVASION OF SOVIET UNIONJUNE 1941
  • BEFORE BRITAIN IS FINISHED OFF, HITLER INVADES SOVIET UNION
  • INTIALLY SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE STALIN IS UNPREPARED
  • GERMANS FAIL TO ACHIEVE THREE PRIME OBJECTIVES BEFORE WINTER HITS
      • Capture of Leningrad
      • Capture of Moscow
      • Capture of southern oil fields
the new order
THE NEW ORDER
  • BASED ON RACISM
  • HIERARCHY OF RACES CREATED
    • Slavs close to bottom –subhumans
    • Jews at very bottom –marked for complete extermination
  • FINAL SOLUTION
    • Cold-blooded murder of every Jew in Europe
    • Extermination camps set up in Poland
  • Auschwitz
    • 12,000 people killed per day
  • Six million Jews killed
  • Two million others (gypsies, homosexuals, communists, and other “undesirables”) murdered
grand alliance
GRAND ALLIANCE
  • United States
  • Great Britain
  • Soviet Union
    • Unbelievable potential military strength
    • Rebuilt and relocated industry after 1941
    • Stalin appealed to patriotism (not ideology)
  • Helped by growing resistance movements in Nazi-occupied countries
    • And by “governments-in-exile” of defeated countries
      • Such as “Free French,” headed by Charles De Gaulle in London
the tide turns in the east
THE TIDE TURNS IN THE EAST
  • NAZIS RENEW INVASION OF RUSSIA –SPRING 1942
  • BATTLE OF STALINGRAD
    • June 1942
    • Red Army wins
    • Germans suffer huge losses and lose momentum
    • Red Army goes on offensive, one that will eventually lead to “liberation” of Eastern Europe and capture of Berlin in 1945
tide turns in the west i
TIDE TURNS IN THE WEST I
  • Americans and British invade and capture North Africa from Germans and Italians (1942-1943)
  • Allies invade Sicily in July 1943 and then Italy in September 1943
  • Italians surrender but Germans send reinforcements
  • Allied progress through Italy towards Germany difficult and slow
tide turns in the west ii
TIDE TURNS IN THE WEST II
  • Allies launch long-delayed cross-Channel invasion of France
    • D-Day June 6, 1944
  • Move east through France towards Germany
  • Germans try one last attempt to stop Allied advance –Battle of the Bulge (November-December 1944)
  • Allies invade from West; Soviet Union from the East
  • Hitler commits suicide as Red Army approaches Berlin and Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945
pacific theater
PACIFIC THEATER
  • Americans regain control of Pacific
    • Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942)
    • Battle of Midway (June 1943)
  • Begin “island hopping” campaign
    • Capture string of islands leading to Japan
    • Battle of Okinawa (June 1945) brings U.S. with 400 miles of Japan
the start of the atomic age
THE START OF THE ATOMIC AGE
  • Japan beaten but won’t surrender
  • Invasion of Japan would take at least a year
    • Estimated one million American casualties
    • Estimated three million Japanese casualties
  • America decides to drop atomic bomb on Hiroshima
  • Japan still doesn’t surrender; another atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
  • Japan surrenders in early September 1945