This session focuses on the Depth Study (Germany 1919-1939) The Learning Aims include understanding: The early beliefs of the Nazi Party. Weimar Germany in the key years of 1923 and 1929. How Hitler became Chancellor. How the Nazis controlled Germany. How the Nazis won support. Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian society? Nazi Image IGCSE Revision Tutorial
1919: Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers Party (led by Anton Drexler). Drexler places Hitler in charge of propaganda and political ideas. 1920: Party renames itself the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) and releases 25 Point Plan Key dates in the early Nazi Party
How many of the Nazi policies and beliefs from 1920 can you name? List them below:
Highlights from the 25 Point Programme (1920) • Union of all Germans into a greater Germany • Annul (cancel) the Treaty of Versailles • Demand more land • Jews have no right of citizenship • Large industries must share their profits • Improve old age pensions • Property can be confiscated without compensation if it is for the good of the nation • Freedom of religion as long as it does not endanger the position of the state. Jewish religion is opposed. • All immigration of non-Germans to stop immediately. • Strong central government
Source Work Practice “The programme of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party is unchangeable” Speech by Adolf Hitler, 24 February 1920 “In the late 1920s Hitler amended the policy to only allow for confiscation of property owned by Jews” British text book, 2006. Does the second source mean Hitler was lying in the quote?
Factors to consider in your answer:Provenance: The purpose, intended audience and ‘time’ of each source. Source B shows us that… HINT: Are the disagreements between the sources ONLY due to ‘lying’ or is there a more to it than simple deception?
“Lying?” • Disagreement over the “unchanging” nature of Nazi Policy. • Source B shows us that policy did change. • Source A says that it was unchangeable. • Hitler was trying to show Nazis as uncompromising to gain support. • Also changed policy to gain support. • Shows Hitler was prepared to change policy. • More than simple lying – if policy had been popular he would not have changed it!
1920-1921: Key events in Nazi History • Hitler placed in charge of propaganda and ideas by Anton Drexler. • Nazi programme released. • Party name changed. • SA formed (1921) Why would it take 12 years for Hitler to became the German Chancellor?
Hitler felt that violence was the only way to gain power. In 1923 he led the Munich Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the government of Bavaria and then overthrow the Weimar government. The Munich Putsch (1923)
1923: A good year for a Putsch because: • Weimar government (Stresemann) had called off passive resistance to the French occupation in the Ruhr. This was resented by many Germans. • Weimar government distracted by Ruhr/Hyperinflation crisis. • Hitler had 3000 SA members who were looking for action! • He also had the support of Ludendorff – a war hero from World War One! WEIMAR WEAK + NAZIS STRONG = PUTSCH-TIME!
What happened in Munich? • Hitler and 600 SA (Stormtroopers) took over Bavarian Government buildings. • Hitler chose Bavaria because the region had a lot of right-wing groups angry at the Weimar government. But…the army turned on the Nazis. Hitler escaped in a car…
Success because… Failure because… How far was the Putsch successful?
Failure: The Putsch failed 16 Nazis were killed Hitler and other leading Nazis were arrested and tried for treason. The Nazi Party was banned. Success: Hitler used the publicity surrounding his trial to draw attention to the Nazi Party. Newspapers reported every word of the trial. The trial proved that Weimar judges favoured the Right wing: Ludendorff was freed and Hitler was only sentenced to 5 years in prison. The recommended sentence for treason was life. Hitler only served 9 months and used that time to write Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler switched strategies, from the use of violent force to seizing power through the democratic process. 1923: A turning point for the Nazis
“How FAR had Germany recovered by 1923/24?” A = Reasons for people to feel more confident or secure. B = Reasons for people to resent Weimar or support right-wing parties. The Putsch failed because Weimar Germany had partially recovered and stabilised since 1919.
Recovered? Extremists losing popular support: Most working people supported Ebert’s Social Democrats (Communists never had more than 15% of votes in elections). Right-wing lacked strong leaders. Kapp Putsch (Berlin, 1921) showed that working people would rise up against the Right to protect the Weimar Government. Neither the Nazis nor the Freikorps had the support of the German people (seen as too extreme and violent) Army did not trust early Nazis (too extreme!!) Still in trouble? Right-Wing still resented Weimar Government “Stabbed in the Back” myth Many Germans still angry about the Treaty of Versailles!! Reparations amount released in 1921 – shocked the German People. Loss of valuable land and colonies had made business more expensive – this affected the German economy and caused anger and resentment! Army restrictions still a sore point (wounded pride!) “How far had Weimar recovered by 1923/1924? End of Extremism?
Recovered? When Ebert asked Germans to use passive resistance against the French in the Ruhr – people obeyed!! When Stresemann replaced Ebert he took decisive action He called off the passive resistance, burned the old currency and issued the Rentenmark . Each step he took helped to solve the Hyperinflation crisis….. Still in trouble? Middle classes troubled by Hyperinflation. Many Germans blamed it on reparations (they ignored the impact of Ebert’s decision to print more money). Weimar Government blamed for the Hyperinflation crisis because it had accepted the TOV in the first place!! (DOH!) “How far had Weimar recovered by 1923/1924? Effective Government?
The Nazi response to failure in 1923? • Organise. • Target the anxious middle classes, businessmen and farmers. • Propaganda, Propaganda, Propaganda!
Nazis in the Wilderness: 1924-1929. Organise 1924 • Brown shirts became the uniform, the Swastika became the symbol of the Nazi Party. • Local parties set up throughout Germany. • Hitler Youth Groups established. 1925 • Enlarged the SA (100,000 members by 1928). • Formed the SS (Elite bodyguard/military). 1926 • First Nazi rally held in town of Weimar.
Hitler “hit the ground running” when he left prison! What was the purpose of these actions?
Target the middle class, business and farmers (1924-1929) Most Germans were workers – why not target them? • Many workers supported the Social Democratic Party (SPD) of Ebert. The SPD supported Weimar Democracy. • Most industrial (factory) workers were doing well in the 1924-1929 period. • Radical workers were more likely to support communist parties than Right –wing parties like the Nazis!
Target the middle class, business and farmers (1924-1929) Why appeal to the middle class and businesses – aren’t they usually LESS likely to support extremists? • Middle class people had been shocked to see their savings disappear during the Hyperinflation crisis. They felt vulnerable. Another economic crisis and they might seek more radical solutions (HINT!) • Small shop-owners lost customers to large department stores (which were often owned by Jews)
Target the middle class, business and farmers (1924-1929) Why would the Nazi Party target farmers? Surely farmers are practical people who were less likely to be impressed by Hitler’s hysterics! • Farm incomes had dropped. Farmers had increased production during the war to feed soldiers but were now producing too much. • Farmers despised the permissive culture in Weimar cities. The permissive sexuality, racial mixing (German girls dancing to Black Jazz music!) and disturbing art shocked and repelled rural Germans. • Hitler appealed to rural values and saw the ‘Ideal’ German as a person who was “born of the land”
On the left is a painting by Adolf Hitler in 1919. On the right is a painting by Ernst Kirchner. The Kirchner painting shows prostitutes in Berlin in 1913.
Propaganda (1924-1929) 1925: Goebbels put in charge of Nazi Propaganda. What did Goebbels believe were the keys to successful propaganda? • Feelings not logic! • Slogans not detailed policy! • Range of methods – not just one or two!
How many methods of Nazi Propaganda (1924-1929) can you name? • Posters • Leaflets • Films • Radio Broadcasts • Records • Rallies • Photographs • Postcards
Sourcework “Use clever, concise, large and striking posters. In most areas they should regularly use the same colors. In so far as the police allow, the preferred color is the familiar red of the National Socialist posters in Munich. Despite the high cost, effective public posters are by the best and most effective method of announcing a meeting, and therefore the cheapest as well. For examples of poster texts, see the appendix to Book I of "Mein Kampf.” Quote from 1927 Guidebook for Nazi Propaganda Writers What does this source tell us about the use of propaganda by the Nazi Party in the 1920s?
How did all these activities affect the ballot box? Guess the % of votes cast for the Nazis in each of these years…. May 1924 6.6% (32 seats in the Reichstag) December 1924 3% (14 seats in the Reichstag) May 1928 2.6% (12 seats in the Reichstag)
Enough to make an ambitious leader take a long bath and wait for a miracle to happen!!!
Weimar Germany during the Stresemann Era (1923-1929) Gustav Stresemann was Chancellor for a few months in 1923. As Chancellor he: • Called off Passive Resistance in the Ruhr • Issued the Rentenmark and burned the worthless German Currency …ending the Hyperinflation Crisis!
Weimar Germany during the Stresemann Era (1923-1929) For most of the 1920s (he died in 1929) Stresemann was the Foreign Minister for Germany. His job was to negotiate treaties and agreements with other countries. He was VERY good at his job… A few things helped him succeed: • He was smart. Stresemann had studied philosophy and literature at Berlin University and had a PhD in economics. • He was from the Right-wing (but moderate) Liberal Party so he appealed to a wide range of parties in the Reichstag. • The economies of many European countries were beginning to recover from the war. This made countries less tense and more willing to discuss potentially tricky issues. • America was going through an economic ‘boom’. France and Britain owed the US money for wartime loans. Some US politicians wanted to make sure that Europe recovered so that France and Britain could pay back the money they owed!
Weimar Republic Stresemann !! Economic accomplishments of the 1920s • 1924 Dawes Plan • 2 Billion dollars of US loans pour into Germany. Factories start opening, unemployment drops, reparations start to get paid and German exports increase. KEY FACT By 1928 German Production had returned to pre-war levels
Weimar Republic Stresemann !! Economic accomplishments of the 1920s • 1929 Young Plan • Allowed Germany to extend the period over which it repaid reparations.
Weimar Republic Stresemann !! Political accomplishments of the 1920s • Locarno Treaties (1925) • Accepted the Western borders of Germany as detailed in the Treaty of Versailles. • France and Belgium (the countries that shared these borders) agreed to take any future disagreements to the League of Nations. There would be NO Ruhr occupations in future.
Weimar Republic Stresemann !! Political accomplishments of the 1920s • Germany joins the League of Nations (1926) • Locarno proves that Germany is becoming a good neighbour. • Germany is admitted into the League of Nations in 1926.
Weimar Republic Stresemann !! Cultural accomplishments of the 1920s • The Kaiser had heavily censored art and theatre in Germany. • During the Weimar Period Germany celebrated a new openness and went through a dramatic and unprecedented cultural revival. • Berlin became a world capital of cinema, theatre, art, and literature. • Stars like Marlene Dietrich, film directors like Fritz Lang and playwrights such as Brecht made Germany the centre of avant garde (cutting-edge) culture. People flocked from New York and London to witness the remarkable developments going on inside Germany.
Weimar Stresemann Era Of course, not all Germans benefited from or approved of these developments. Weimar Germany had yet to recover fully from the legacy of the war: • Resentment caused by the Treaty of Versailles • Fragility of the ‘Miracle’ recovery. • Anger about ‘decadent’ (obscene, indulgent) Weimar culture. • Anger about the ‘Selling Out’ of Germany
Weimar Stresemann Era 1) Resentment caused by the Treaty of Versailles: • Many Germans still resented the reparations and loss of land. The Dawes and Young Plans made repaying the reparations easier but many felt that Germany should not have been given the bill in the first place! • Germans also looked across their borders to land that HAD been theirs and contained people who HAD been their neighbours. This sense of a diminished Germany still caused feelings of anger and resentment. • The military limitations imposed by the Treaty still angered many Germans.
Weimar Stresemann Era 2) Fragile recovery • The ‘miracle’ recovery was based upon U.S. loans. Some Germans were concerned about the fate of Germany if the flow of U.S. funds were to stop or if the American banks demanded immediate repayment.
Weimar Stresemann Era What is the message of this cartoon? The source is a Nazi Party cartoon from 1924. The large figure represents Germany. The small figure is a Jewish banker.
3) Anger about Weimar Culture Many of the artists in Weimar Germany had served in the army during World War One and had been horrified by their experiences of war. They used their art to criticise military values and political leaders. More dangerously, they blurred lines of race and sexuality. Depictions of homosexuality, the love of ‘black’ Jazz music and mocking satire were key features of Weimar culture. This was too much, too soon for many Germans who felt that everything they valued in German culture was being attacked by these decadent ‘artists’ Weimar Stresemann Era
Weimar Stresemann Era 4) Weimar Government was betraying (“selling out”) Germany. Nationalists (people who felt that the main goal of politicians should be making Germany strong again) felt betrayed by Locarno and the League of Nations. Why?
Germany in October 1929: A tale of two leaders. Stresemann. Successful Foreign Minister, Nobel Peace Prize Winner in 1926. Adolf Hitler. Rejected from Art School. Party polling at less than 3%. Good public speaker.
October, 1929: The month that changed everything! October 3 1929 • Gustav Stresemann dies of a stroke. October 29, 1929 • Wall Street Crash triggers Great Depression. Germany’s recovery and stability is about to face its greatest challenge yet…
The Great Depression (1929) • It started in America. • Wall Street is the street in New York where people can buy shares in companies. • The more confident people are about a company the more the shares will rise in value. • In 1929 in America people began to realise that too many factories were producing too many products – the American market was filling up with products that nobody wanted to buy. • People realised that their shares in factories were about to become worthless.
The Great Depression (1929) • On October 29 people began selling shares to make money before anyone else realised they were buying worthless investments. • Problem was – everyone was doing the same thing! • The value of ALL shares ‘crashed’. This was the Wall Street Crash. • American factories started closing. • Banks realised that all the money they had lent to factories and businesses was likely to be lost. They started to panic. • They turned to loans made to other countries and started demanding repayment. • Germany had received large sums of money from US banks. These loans had poured into Germany and been used to build up the economy. • Now the tide turned the other way. As American banks started demanding their money back German factories had no choice but to shut down and sell out.