Adolf Hitler and the Nazi RegimeDomestic Policies Daniel W. Blackmon IB HL History Coral Gables Senior High
Hitler joins the NSDAP (1920) • Adolf Hitler joins the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party in Munich, quickly dominating it by force of personality,.
The Twenty Five Points 1920[excerpts] • The union of all Germans into a single Reich on the basis of self-determination • The acquisition of land and colonies • .The annulment of the Treaty of Versailles
The Twenty Five Points 1920[excerpts] • Only those of German blood could be "comrades of the people" and the state. • .Only those of German blood could vote or hold official posts. (Carsten 96)
The SA (the Brownshirts)1921 • The most important commander of the SA is Ernst Röhm. • Röhm entitled his autobiography “Confessions of an Archtraitor”
The SA (the Brownshirts)1921 • Creation of the Sturmabteilung, the SA, “brownshirts” or “stormtroopers,” a paramilitary organization that becomes Hitler’s weapon for gaining control of the streets.
The SA (the Brownshirts)1921 • Many are recruited from the Freikorps. • These people are thugs.
The Munich Beer Hall PutschNovember 8, 1923 • Hitler tries to take advantage of the crisis in the Ruhr and take over the government of Bavaria, preparatory to seizing control of the government in Weimar.
The Munich Beer Hall PutschNovember 8, 1923 • The Bavarian police open fire. The man next to Hitler is hit and mortally wounded, pulling Hitler to the ground and saving his life. Sixteen Nazis and three police are killed.
Mein Kampf • Hitler was arrested and tried for treason. He used the trial to attack the government and the Treaty of Versailles.
Mein Kampf • The trial is an amazing tour de force, where he retrieved a catastrophic propaganda error. He effectively placed the government on trial.
Mein Kampf • He was convicted and sentenced to 5 years in a comfortable prison. He served 9 months, during which he dictated Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.
Mein Kampf • The best way to comprehend Hitler is to read what he actually wrote, rather than summarizing it. • You will find the quotations I am about to give you to be very offensive.
Mein Kampf • You should be offended. • I would be very concerned if you are not offended. • Hitler is driven by psychopathic hatred.
Mein Kampf • Foreign observers who read Mein Kampf simply could not believe that, once in power, Hitler could seriously mean to implement the ideas and policies outlined or implied in the book.
Mein Kampf • Unfortunately for everyone in the world, Hitler meant what he said. • Hitler’s long term goals remained very constant throughout his life. • He remained flexible as to tactics.
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Antisemitism • “The cleanliness of this people [the Jews], moral and otherwise, I must say, is a point in itself. By their very exterior you could tell that these were no lovers of water, and, to your distress, you often knew it with your eyes closed. . . .
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Antisemitism • “All this could scarcely be called very attractive; but it became positively repulsive when, in addition to their physical uncleanliness, you discovered the moral stains on this ‘chosen people.’ . . .
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Antisemitism • “Was there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it?
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Antisemitism • “If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light--a kike!” (Hitler Mein Kampf 57)
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • Lebensraum [Living Space]: • "The foreign policy of the folkish state must safeguard the existence on this planet of the race embodied in the state,
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • by creating a healthy, viable natural relation between the nation's population and growth on the one hand and the quantity and quality of its soil on the other hand." (Hitler 643)
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • "Only an adequately large space on this earth assures a nation of freedom of existence." (Hitler 643)
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • "If the National Socialist movement really wants to be consecrated by history with a great mission for our nation, it . . . must find the courage to gather our people and their strength
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • "for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or of serving others as a slave nation." (Hitler 645-6)
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • "The National Socialist movement must strive to eliminate the disproportion between our population and our area--viewing this latter as a source of food as well as a basis for power politics. . . .." (Hitler 646)
Mein Kampf [excerpt]Living Space • "we National Socialists must hold unflinchingly to our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth." (Hitler 652)
Mein Kampf [excerpt] Anti-Bolshevism • "In Russian Bolshevism we must see the attempt undertaken by the Jews in the twentieth century to achieve world domination." (Hitler 661)
Mein Kampf [excerpt] Anti-Bolshevism "The fight against Jewish world Bolshevism requires a clear attitude toward Soviet Russia. You cannot drive out the Devil with Beelzebub." (Hitler 662)
The Great Depression in Germany 1930 • Germany was extremely dependent upon short term loans from US banks to keep its economy going. The stock market crash in the US dried up that money,
The Great Depression in Germany 1930 • The result was the failure of key German banks, which brought the Depression into central Europe. From there, it spread, since the collapse of the Central European economy dragged everyone else down with it.
The Elections of 1930 • The elections are a disaster for Parliamentary democracy. • Stresemann's German People's Party goes from 78 seats to 41 • .The National Liberals go from 45 seats to 30
The Elections of 1930 • .The Catholic Centre go from 16 seats to 19 • .The Left Liberals go from 25seats to 20 • .The Social Democrats go from 153 seats to 143
The Elections of 1930 • .The Communists gain 23 seats, from 54 to 77 • .The National Socialists (Nazis) gain 95 seats, from 12 to 107
The Elections of 1930 • A Parliament that had a democratic majority is now replaced by one where the second and third largest parties are implacably opposed to parliamentary democracy.
The Elections of 1930 • The Chancellor, Dr. Heinrich Brüning is determined to rule by decree. Brüning's government therefore marks the end of Parliamentary democracy in Germany.
Hindenburg’s Re-election 1932 • Hitler decided to run for President against Hindenburg, who is now senile • Hindenburg won 46.6% of the vote to Hitler's 30.1%, • .Hindenburg wins the run-off by 53% to Hitler's 36.8%
The von Papen and von Schleicher Governments 1932 • First, Franz von Papen and then Gen. Kurt von Schleicher attempt to form aristocratic, rightist governments without Nazi participation.
The von Papen and von Schleicher Governments 1932 • Lacking a Reichstag majority, both will have to govern by decree, using Article 48. Von Schleicher maneuvers to discredit von Papen with Hindenburg, and von Papen then returns the favor to von Schleicher.
Hitler-von Papen GovernmentJanuary 30, 1933 • The industrialists and landowners who surrounded Hindenburg urged him strongly to appoint a Hitler-Papen government: a Harzburg government of all the nationalist groups. The old man finally agrees.
Hitler-von Papen GovernmentJanuary 30, 1933 • The new cabinet includes only 3 Nazis, Hitler himself, Wilhelm Frick as Minister of the Interior (includes the police) and Hermann Goering as Minister Without Portfolio (also Prussian Interior Minister).
Hitler-von Papen GovernmentJanuary 30, 1933 • Papen and his people believe that they can control Hitler. They are wrong; the German Faust has made its pact with Mephistopheles.
Reichstag FireFebruary 27, 1933 • Arsonists set fire to the Reichstag building. Hitler immediately blames the Communists for the "plot."
Reichstag FireFebruary 27, 1933 • He moves with such speed that many historians believe that Hitler ordered the fire set, and set up van der Lubbe as a scapegoat. There isn't enough evidence to make this stick, however.
Reichstag FireFebruary 27, 1933 • Hitler has Hindenburg issue an emergency decree under Article 48 suspending habeas corpus, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of association, and the inviolability of property. • The Nazi reign of terror begins.
The Enabling ActMarch 1933 • Hitler submits the Enabling Act. This gave Hitler emergency dictatorial powers for 4 years. • Both the Reichstag and the President are removed from legislative authority. • The Reichstag voted 441 to 84 in favor. The Enabling Act passes.
The Enabling ActMarch 1933 • Only one man, Otto Wels, head of the SDs, has the courage to speak up against the bill. • He was arrested the next day and sent to Dachau concentration camp.
Gleichschaltung (Coordination)1933-1945 • In 1933, Hitler begins to bring everything in the country under his control. • Gleichschaltung does not occur overnight, however. It takes several years before Hitler is secure enough to turn to other issues.
Persecution of the Jews beginsApril 1933 • “Hitler’s government issues an official boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany, purges the civil service, and restricts admission to public schools and universities.” (Levy xiii)
Persecution of the Jews beginsApril 1933 • As we shall see, the destruction of the Jews takes place in stages, and is closely tied with foreign policy and Nazi successes in World War II