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SOCIAL JUSTICE AND WHITENESS IN EDUCATION: COLOR-BLIND POLICYMAKING AND RACISM. Dr. Paul R. Carr. Overview. Historical, cultural and societal Whiteness Contextualizing Whiteness in education Educational policymaking in education (the case of Ontario) Key considerations Questions.
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Dr. Paul R. Carr
1. In what ways did/has Whiteness entered your life in Canada as either privilege and/or
2. Can you name ten White Canadians and ten non-White Canadians who have made a
major contribution to science, culture, and life of Canada (excluding sports figures)?
3. Does surviving institutional Whiteness require individual or institutional responses?
4. What aspects of Whiteness are difficult to quantify?
5. Is there a reason for the difficulty in articulating Indigenous responses to institutional
colonization and racism?
6. Do you think that being motivated to fight racial inequality as a result of White guilt is
necessarily a sign of an ill-guided motive? In which instances do you think White guilt could be
beneficial, and, conversely, harmful?
7. Statistical projections indicate that in major Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver) White people
will soon be in the minority. How might this affect the process of White Racial Identity
8. How can individuals work against the silencing of race? What conversations need to happen?
9. What are some of the tactics or mechanisms that Whites use in their denial of race privilege? How are the respective tactics or mechanisms related to attempts to justify and rationalize their beliefs that their achievements are a result of their individual efforts?
10. Is it possible for racial minorities to gain equitable access to employment and educational opportunities without special structural and institutional programs like Affirmative Action and Employment Equity?
11. If racism is to be addressed, White people must recognize (i.e., admitting to) “White privilege,” dealing with the resulting personal or internal discomfort, tensions and conflicts, and challenging the very system or structures that contribute to the privilege. Discuss how best this state of being might be attained without developing the urge to give up or back down in the face of personal and interpersonal conflicts that could undermine the socio-economic and political success for which everyone strives.
12. How is Whiteness complicated by other expressions of ethnicity? By other religious identities? By sexual difference?
13. Does Canadian multiculturalism hinder possibilities of discussing Whiteness openly
within schools and communities?
14. How do policies aimed at equity and anti-racism play out in the schools? Are they
enough and, if not, how do we continue to move forward in the struggle against
oppressive practices and systemic racism in the education system?
15. How should Whiteness be broached within an institutional context by those who may not be
in positions of power?
16. How should Whites be made aware of, and become engaged in, the conceptualization
and application of race and anti-racism?
17. What do members of minoritized racial groups need to be aware of as they become part of
the decision-making process?
18. How should Aboriginals and Whites negotiate pedagogy in a changing world?
19. How would you as a teacher develop understandings of the difficult knowledge necessary
to interrogate Whiteness and White privilege?
20. What are some of the ways we might be able to avoid "tokenizing" the inclusion of
racial minority (or non-White) people's experiences and/or scholarship in education?
21. How may teacher educators use antiracism pedagogy to disrupt the discourse of
denial, defensiveness, emotional tensions, ignorance, hostility, and “counter-
knowledge strategies” that teacher candidates often engage in to avoid a critical
interrogation of racism and privilege?
22. The next generation of teachers demonstrates limited knowledge of Canada’s racist history.
Consequently, they demonstrate moral superiority toward their neighbours to the South. How
do we work toward a comprehensive picture of Canadian history that highlights
similarities between American and Canadian racial histories?
23. Do discussions of race in secondary school philosophy classrooms necessarily
include discussions of Whiteness? In short, is it necessary to consider Whiteness in
discussions of race?
24. What problems, especially in relation to race, unfold when commercialized imperatives
and practices are the chief forces structuring the day-to-day happenings in schools