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Syntax. 2 nd class Chapter 4. Syntactic Categories. That glass suddenly broke. A jogger ran toward the end of the lane. These dead trees might block the road. The detective quickly looked through the records. The peaches appear quite ripe.

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syntax

Syntax

2nd class

Chapter 4

syntactic categories
Syntactic Categories
  • That glass suddenly broke.
  • A jogger ran toward the end of the lane.
  • These dead trees might block the road.
  • The detective quickly looked through the records.
  • The peaches appear quite ripe.
  • Jack will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.
those guests have left1
Those guests have left

S

NP Aux VP

Det N

those guests

those guests have left2
Those guests have left

S

NP Aux VP

Det N have

those guests

those guests have left3
Those guests have left

S

NP Aux VP

Det N have V

those guests left

maria ate a brownie1
Maria ate a brownie

S

NP Aux VP

N

Maria

maria ate a brownie2
Maria ate a brownie

S

NP Aux VP

N past

Maria

maria ate a brownie3
Maria ate a brownie

S

NP Aux VP

N past V NP

Maria ate det N

a brownie

that shelf will fall1
That shelf will fall

S

NP Aux VP

Det N

that shelf

that shelf will fall2
That shelf will fall

S

NP Aux VP

Det N will

those guests

that shelf will fall3
That shelf will fall

S

NP Aux VP

Det N will V

that shelf fall

the glass broke
The glass broke

S

NP Aux VP

the glass broke1
The glass broke

S

NP Aux VP

Det N

the glass

the glass broke2
The glass broke

S

NP Aux VP

Det N past

the glass

the glass broke3
The glass broke

S

NP Aux VP

Det N past V

the glass broke

syntactic trees
Syntactic Trees
  • The pretty girl ate the sandwich quickly.
  • This house is full of love.
  • She is working in the park.
  • The cat and the dog are enemies.
  • I saw Peter or Paul in the mall.
ambiguous sentences structural ambiguity
Ambiguous sentences (Structural ambiguity)
  • I shot an elephant in underwear.
  • The cat chased the dog in the park.
  • He saw the robber with a binocular.
types of verbs
Types of Verbs
  • Intransitive verbs: do not take an NP

e.g., I sleep

  • Transitive: take an NP (object)

e.g., I met her in the mall.

  • Ditransitive: take 2 NPs (or 1 NP and 1 PP)

e.g., I gave my wife a gift.

  • Linking: describes the subject.

e.g., You look marvelous; She became a doctor; I feel dizzy; I am fine

  • Verbs with sentential complements: followed by a whole sentence.

e.g., The ancients believed (that) the earth was flat.

what kind of verb
What kind of verb?
  • He is very boring.
  • I like vegetables and fruits.
  • I saw my friend yesterday.
  • I sold my car to my boss.
  • She told me the truth.
  • I feel bad.
  • I think that you should go to the party.
  • Peter gave Mark the cheese.
  • Paul realized that Maria fed the baby.
  • Carlos wonders if Peter is afraid of him.
  • Peter gave the cheese to Mark.
embedded sentences
Embedded sentences
  • I think that you should go to the party.
embedded sentences1
Embedded sentences
  • Paul realized that Maria fed the baby.
rules
Rules
  • S  NP Aux VP
  • NP  (Det) (AP) N (PP)
  • VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP)
  • PP  P NP
  • AP  Adj (PP)
  • CP  Comp S