The roaring twenties
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The Roaring Twenties. 1920’s. Decade of prosperity, fun and wild living Era of the “Jazz Age” New fashion New music New Art New Fads. Fashion: 1920’s Flapper.

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1920 s

  • Decade of prosperity, fun and wild living

  • Era of the “Jazz Age”

    • New fashion

    • New music

    • New Art

    • New Fads

Fashion 1920 s flapper
Fashion: 1920’s Flapper

  • a "new breed" of young women

  • Short skirts, bobbed their hair

  • Disliked “acceptable behavior”

  • Engaged in drinking & smoking

  • Treated sex in a casual manner

  • Questioned the “traditional”role of women

Art deco
Art Deco

  • popular international

    design movement

  • affecting architecture,

    interior design, fashion,

    painting, the graphic arts,

    and film

  • Combination of many styles of the 20th C

  • purely decorative

  • At the time, this style was seen as elegant, functional, and modern

1920s fads dances
1920s Fads – Dances

  • “The Charleston”

  • The “Foxtrot”

Foxtrot -

Charleston -


  • “The Great Gatsby”

    • Popular book in 1920s

  • Canadian novelist Mazo de la Roche published a very popular series, “Jalna”

Fads movies
Fads - Movies

  • Mary Pickford – Canadian actress who achieved movie-star status

Canadian invention insulin
Canadian Invention - Insulin

  • Insulin – as treatment for diabetes

  • Dr. Fredrick Banting discovered working at the University of Toronto

1 st flight across atlantic
1st Flight across Atlantic

  • May, 1927 - Charles Lindberg flew the 1st non-stop solo trans-Atlantic flight from NY to Paris in 33 ½ hours

1920s a decade of adjustment
1920s “A Decade of Adjustment”

  • The country moved towards isolationism and greater autonomy from Britain

  • Economy diversified and became more dependent on American investment

  • Labour, women and aborignial people struggled for legal, social and economic equality

  • Popular culture became more “Americanized” and the literary and visual arts experienced a renaissance

1921 election
1921 Election

  • MacKenzie King – leader of Liberal party

    • Believed in the middle path

  • Arthur Meighen – leader of the Conservatives

    • Believed in principles over compromise; didn’t care if he offended anyone

  • Liberals elected 117 seats; Conservatives 55 seats; Progressives 64 seats

Mackenzie King


1921 election1
1921 Election

  • Liberals were a minority government

  • Progressive Party did not last very long

  • 1926 – King challenged by the Progressives to set up Old Age Pensions Act

  • Act was passed in 1927: $240/yr

Growing independence from britain
Growing Independence From Britain

  • 1922: King refused to support Britain when they invaded the Turkish Empire

  • 1923: King insisted Canada be allowed to sign an international treaty known as the Halibut Treaty without British representative’s signature

  • 1926: King challenged Britain over its influence on Canada’s internal politics known as King- Byng Crisis

  • 1926: Participated in Balfour Report

Chanak crisis 1922
Chanak Crisis - 1922

  • Turkish war in which British troops stationed in Chanak, a neutral zone near the Dardanelles, were threatened by Turkish nationalists

  • Britain appealed to Canadian people for aid in preventing Turkish occupation of Chanak

  • King said parliament must decide whether or not to send troops; did not go when asked; Canadians did not want to get involved

  • Pointed out need for greater Canadian control over foreign policy – First time Canada refused to come to Britain’s aid

1923 halibut treaty
1923 - Halibut Treaty

  • Treaty Agreement concerning closed season on Halibut fishing in the North Pacific

  • King wished to eliminate British representation from Canada’s treaty-making process

  • Canada signed the treaty on her own without any involvement from Britain – first time.

1926 king byng crisis


1926 - King-Byng Crisis

  • 1925 – minority government Liberals formed with support of 28 Progressive Party members;

  • Without the Progressives, Liberals only had 101 seats, Conservatives had 116

  • Liberals lost Progressive Party support because of a liquor smuggling scandal

    • King’s ministers were protecting the individuals and even profiting off of the illegal liquor sales to the United States (prohibition was on in the USA at this time

  • Conservatives called for a motion of censure the Liberals and Liberal lost


King byng cont
King- Byng – cont’

  • King asked Byng to dissolve parliament to call another election; Byng refused and asked Meighen to form the government instead

  • Byng eventually forced to called an election after Meighen lost a confidence vote 3 months later

  • Sept 14, 1926, King won majority.


Imperial conference 1926
Imperial Conference 1926

  • Dominions of the British Empire requested autonomy & to define status of “Dominion”

    • Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

    • Autonomy: the freedom to govern themselves

  • Resulted in Balfour Report – 1926

  • Balfour report 1926
    Balfour Report - 1926

    • created new status for Dominion countries

    • clarified Governor General’s role in Dominions - now representative of the crown – not agent of British government

    • defined Dominions as autonomous communities – equal in status and not subordinate to Britain

    • recognized greater autonomy in domestic and external affairs

    • became law in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster was passed

    Balfour report cont
    Balfour Report (cont.)

    • Two Restrictions:

      1. Canada’s constitution, the British North America Act, remained in Britain, because the Canadian federal and provincial governments could not agree on an amending formula

      • Amending Formula - Procedure for changing the Canadian Constitution

        2. Judicial Court of Appeal (Judicial Committee of the Privy Council) for Canadians resided in Britain until 1949

    Statute of westminster 1931
    Statute of Westminster - 1931

    • made Balfour Report legal

    • officially recognized Dominions as members of the British Commonwealth, NOT colonies of the British Empire

    • Canada now able to conduct its own Foreign Affairs and Relations

    Signing of Statute of Westminster

    Economic boom
    Economic Boom

    • The 1920’s started in depression.

    • During the 1920’s the US started investing in Canada’s economy.

    • US Companies set up ‘branch plants’ such as auto plants, which operated here but for American business men.

      • US enriched Canada’s economy by extracting or harvesting raw materials (primary resources)

      • Materials were transported to US for processing and manufacturing (secondary resources)

    Economic boom cont
    Economic Boom (cont.)

    • With the increase in employment and economic prosperity few Canadians questioned the long term effects of American involvement.

    PM King & US President Roosevelt

    Bootlegging across the border
    Bootlegging Across the Border

    • The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) pushed prohibition into legislation in Canada and the US.

      • Prohibition: the sale, manufacture, and transportation (bootlegging) of alcohol was illegal.

    • By 1920, provincial governments in Canada were overturning the decision because of its unpopularity.

    • The US, however, enforced it until 1933. Canadians sold illegal alcohol over the border for about 10 years.

    Usa prohibition and speakeasies
    USA- Prohibition and Speakeasies

    • A speakeasy was an establishment that secretly sold alcoholic beverages in the USA during the Prohibition (1920-1933)

    • The term comes from a patron's manner of ordering alcohol without raising suspicion — a bartender would tell a patron to be quiet and "speak easy".

    Prosperity urbanization luxuries
    Prosperity = Urbanization & Luxuries

    • With the new booming economy Canadians were afforded more opportunities to enjoy the luxuries of life.

    • Telephone lines were becoming commonplace for all houses in cities.

    • Motorized vehicles were becoming affordable and popular.

    Prosperity automobiles
    Prosperity = Automobiles

    • The Custer car (right) was an early alternative fuel car and you can see from the pictures that it looked as if it came from Munchkin Land.

    Professional sports
    Professional Sports

    • Professional sports were also increasing in popularity