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Today’s Objective • Given: Instruction in writing performance objectives that includes presentation, performance, and feedback • You Will: Write performance objectives • How Well: Objectives will contain all three parts, will be internally consistent and externally valid, and will be useable by trainees. Mastery level is 85%.
Reasons to Write & Use Objectives: • Establish Expectations • Guide Instructional Planning • Guide Evaluation • Provide Basis for Improving Instruction“ • Motivation, Trainees Who Know What is Expected Often Perform Better
Objectives KEY QUESTION What kind of things should the Learner know and do at the end of instruction that will most facilitate his/her becoming a __________________________? COURSE OBJECTIVES = INSTRUCTIONAL INTENT
Characteristics of Objectives • Are about the learner • Describe learner behavior • Are about ends rather than means • Include the CONDITIONS under which the student will be performing • Describe the LEVEL of performance PERFORMANCE
Performance Objectives • Who & When • What -- TASK – What to Do or Learn • Context -- CONDITION -- Under What Circumstances • How Well -- STANDARD -- To What Degree of Skill or Accuracy
Performance Objective CONDITIONS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA things do how well situations analyze process restrictions product ----------------------------------------------------------- Example: Given grass identify and list with 100% samples uses of grasses accuracy
Condition Statement Describes the CONTEXT (setting or situation) in which the trainee will be required to demonstrate mastery
Condition Examples • Things • Given certain tools • Using test instrument • Provided with mockups, devices, etc. • Situations • Using actual customer's car or other live work • Under some simulated situation • Presented with picture, problems, case study
Condition Examples(2 of 2) • Restrictions • Without the use of references, texts, books, manuals • Without help • Without calculator, special tools, tables, charts, etc.
Condition Examples (1 of 2) • Tools, equipment, supplies, or materials the learner is given to perform the task • Given an oscilloscope and alignment tools • Guides, manuals, and other written information the learner is given to perform the task • Given maintenance publication 24A
Condition Examples(2 of 2) • Materials to which the learner is denied access • The use of a calculator • Equipment conditions that may affect the performance of the task • With an actual patient • Physical conditions that may affect performance of the task • (Weld) in an enclosed area
Performance Statement • Indicates specifically what it is that the trainee will be able to DO. • May be a restatement of the task itself • May be altered in the training setting but must apply to job setting.
Performance Statement • The heart of the objective • Based on the task statement • Describe what the trainee should DO to demonstrate task mastery • Describe final (terminal) testing performance required of a competent employee • A very precise statement
The Performance Statement Is • NOT about INSTRUCTOR performance ("will teach..., will demonstrate..., etc.) • NOT vague ("understand..., know..., learn..., etc.) • NOT meaningless ("the trainee will BE ABLE TO...") “AAAAARRRRRGGGGGHHHH !!!!! • NOT wordy or flowery ("fully..., completely..., really..., etc.) • NOT "positive behavior" ("good..., well..., correct..., etc.)
Criterion Statement • States HOW WELL the trainee should perform the task • Specifies a level of performance consistent with the way the task should be performed ON THE JOB.
Tips for Writing Criterion Statements • Write precise criteria and avoid "correctly", "to instructor's satisfaction", etc. • Criteria are the same for everyone • Don't tie criteria to instruction ("according to textbook specs")
Criterion Statement Examples(1 of 2) • Quantity of work per unit of time the learner is expected to complete • Inspect twelve units per hour • Accuracy within a specified tolerance • Within +/- 5 millimeters of the specified length • Maximum number of allowable errors • With no errors
Criterion Statement Examples(2 of 2) • Maximum amount of time to complete a task • Within three minutes • Task completed in accordance with external criteria • According to manufacturer's specifications • Task completed to a specified degree of performance • Receive a rating of at least 3 on a scale of 1-5 where the scale represents . . .
Performance Objective Example Given a micrometer, the student will measure the diameter of 6 sample parts to the nearest 1/1000 inch. • TASK = MEASURE SAMPLE PARTS • CONDITION = GIVEN A MICROMETER • STANDARD = TO THE NEAREST 1/1000”
Performance Objective Example Given 30 direct-current circuit problems, the electronics technician will solve for the missing circuit values and have at least 90% of the values correct to two decimal places
Performance Objective Example Given gas cylinder, flow meter regulator, adjustable wrench, and safely glasses, the learner will set up a flow meter regulator for GMAW shielding gases to within +/- 5% of the flow rate requested by the evaluator
Sample Performance Objectivefor Skill Task Divide line into equal parts with instruments • Using only a compass and straightedge, divide a straight line into a specified number of segments. Segments must be equal within +/- 1/64 inch
Sample Performance Objectivefor Skill Task Make chest x-ray • Given a patient, an x-ray unit, and the necessary materials, make a chest x-ray. All items on the performance test should receive a "yes" rating.
Sample Performance Objectivesfor Knowledge Tasks Identify and describe fittings • When shown actual or photos of typical cast-iron and PVC fittings, identify each by name and describe the purpose of each with 100% accuracy Estimate project costs • Given a sketch of a typical field project, estimate the cost of the finished product using current prices. The estimate must be within 5% of the actual cost.
Keep Performance Objectives • Simple - Clear • Short • Specific – Measurable or Observable • Obtainable • Non-Trivial • As Few Objectives as Possible While Meeting Your Goals & Standards
KNOW WANT APPRECIATE MASTER ENJOY LEARN LIKE SOME MANY A LITTLE VARIOUS ALMOST UNDERSTAND GRASP SIGNIFICANCE OF Avoid Vague Terms
IDENTIFY DISTINGUISH ORDER DESCRIBE DEMONSTRATE COMPARE CONTRAST DEFEND RANK RECITE CALCULATE PREDICT SOLVE DESIGN EVALUATE MEASURE Use Specific Terms
Steps to Writing Performance Objectives • Select Content & Action Verbs • Describe Learner • State Conditions Where Learning is to Occur • Describe Acceptable Level of Performance