Ch. 20- 2 Moving to the City Mrs. Manley
The US was changing from a rural (farming/ranch) to an urban (city) area!- moved looking for JOBS! • Cities had large immigrant populations • New farm machines made work on farms easier and men & women left farms to work in factories • African Americans left South to move North for jobs. • RRs helped people move to cities
City Life • Tenements- crowded sub-standard apartments in crowded cities; most immigrants lived in these; shared by several families; small dimly lit rooms • Slums- poor run-down urban neighborhoods • Filthy- crowded- spread diseases easily • Middle class moves to suburbs- areas outside of cities thanks to transportation improvements; houses w/ plumbing,electricity
Gilded Age • Gilded- covered w/ a thin layer of gold • The Gilded Age- it’s a time of extreme wealth (JP Morgan, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt)---- however under that was EXTREME poverty!
Problems in Cities • Overcrowding • Sanitation & health problems • Garbage & horse manure in streets; overflowing sewers- spread diseases in overcrowded cities! • Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives; goes into tenements, photographs & writes about life/problems • Crime big problem!
Solutions • YMCA/YWCA recreation centers for youth • Settlement houses- provided assistance to poor, provide medical care, playgrounds, nurseries, libraries, educational opps. • Jane Addams- Hull House, Chicago- Settlement House.
Cities built up not out! • 10-story office bldg. in Chicago William LeBaron Jenney, iron and steel frame = WORLD’s 1st skyscraper!!! • Woolworth Bldg. – New York • Frederik Law Olmstead- designed Central Park(NYC) and other parks
New Transportation: • Streetcars/trolleys • 1897- Boston- 1st subway, NYC follows • Paved streets • Bridges- • Eads Bridge crosses Mississippi (MS) River • Brooklyn Bridge connects Manhattan & Brooklyn