Ch 20: The Blood. Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood and give the functions of each
Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components
Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing
Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood and give the functions of each
Give a brief accounting of the platelets
Review hemopoiesis, including RBC and leukocyte formation
(= Formed elements)
Transports organic and inorganic molecules, formed elements, and heat
Plasma has more:
Similar concentration: Salts & small molecules
plasma and serum?
Most plasma proteins are made in liver. Exception: ?
Lipoproteins = particles containing lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) and proteins (albumins & globulins)
Red and White Blood Cells
Why white blood cells???
Measured by hematocrit or PCV
Most abundant blood cell: 1000 RBCs/1 WBC
Contain hemoglobin, carry O2
Very regular shape - biconcave discs
Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec
Fe ion in heme group reversibly binds O2
How many oxygen
molecules can 1
blood type ?
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies can be formed in plasma !
normally NO anti Rh present
Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal!
Universal Donor vs. Universal Recipient
Only for emergencies - must be given slowly !
Reduced oxygen carrying ability of blood. Causes??
Erythrocytosis: excessive increase in RBCs
Blood Doping: p. 545
Via direct transfusion, or
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Quantity and type determined by differential WBC count
Circulating WBCs are only a small fraction of total WBCs. Most are located in ?
Up to ~ 70% (~ 2/3) of circulating WBCs
Cytoplasm packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes
~ 2% - 4% of circulating WBCs
Granules stain with eosin
Increased in allergies and parasitic infections
Cell fragments of Megakaryocytes
(~ 4,000 thrombocytes per Megakaryocyte)
~ 160 m
Lifespan ~ 12 days
involved in blood clotting
Leukopenia < 2,500/ L (normal 6000 – 9000)
Leukocytosis > 30,000/ L
Thrombocytopenia: < 80,000/ L (normal ~ 350,000)
Thrombocytosis: > 1,000,000/ L
Lymphopenia vs. _____________
Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell for all blood cells
In red bone marrow