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Ch 20: The Blood. Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood and give the functions of each

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ch 20 the blood

Ch 20: The Blood

Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components

Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing

Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood and give the functions of each

Give a brief accounting of the platelets

Review hemopoiesis, including RBC and leukocyte formation

functions of blood
Functions of Blood
  • Distribution - nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, etc.
  • Self-sealing – hemostasis
  • Disease/ infection fighting
slide3
Blood = connective tissue

specialized cells:

(= Formed elements)

RBCs

WBCs

Platelets

extracellular

matrix:

Plasma

color ?

volume ?

plasma composition
Plasma Composition

Transports organic and inorganic molecules, formed elements, and heat

  • Water 92%
  • Plasma proteins 7%
  • Other solutes 1%
plasma proteins
Plasma Proteins
  • Albumin (60%) Major contributor to osmotic concentration of plasma. Transport of lipids and steroid hormones
  • Globulins (35%) Transport ions, hormones, lipids; immune function
  • Fibrinogen (4%) Essential component of clotting system (conversion to insoluble fibrin)
  • Regulatory proteins (< 1%) ????
other solutes
Other Solutes
  • Electrolytes: Normal extracellular fluid ion composition (????)
  • Organic nutrients: glucose, FA, AA
  • Organic wastes: urea, bilirubin
difference between plasma and interstitial fluid
Difference between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid :

Plasma has more:

  • Dissolved O2 O2 diffuses out into tissue
  • Dissolved proteins (too big to cross caps.)
    • Albumins
    • Globulins
      •  globulins
      •  and  globulins
    • Fibrinogen

Similar concentration: Salts & small molecules

slide8
serum = plasma -

Difference between

plasma and serum?

2 more things
. . . . 2 more things:

Most plasma proteins are made in liver. Exception: ?

Lipoproteins = particles containing lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) and proteins (albumins & globulins)

formed elements
Formed Elements

Red and White Blood Cells

Platelets

  • Platelets
  • WBCs
  • RBCs

.1%

99.9%

slide11

Formed Elements cont.

Why white blood cells???

rbcs erythrocytes
RBCs = Erythrocytes

Measured by hematocrit or PCV

Most abundant blood cell: 1000 RBCs/1 WBC

Contain hemoglobin, carry O2

Very regular shape - biconcave discs

Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec

structure of hemoglobin hb
Structure of Hemoglobin (Hb)

Fe ion in heme group reversibly binds O2

How many oxygen

molecules can 1

Hb molecule

carry?

b

a

abo rh blood types
ABO & Rh Blood Types
  • Blood groups (types) based on specific RBC surface antigens (= proteins)
  • > 30 common varieties of antigens known. Most important ABO & Rh

blood type ?

abo blood typing 4 combinations possible
ABO Blood typing: 4 combinations possible
  • A surface antigen = blood type A
  • B surface antigen = blood type B
  • both surface antigens = type AB
  • neither surface antigen = type O
  • Rh surface antigen = + blood type
  • no Rh antigen = negative blood type
2 8 months after birth
. . . 2 - 8 months after birth:

Anti-A and anti-B antibodies can be formed in plasma !

normally NO anti Rh present

transfusion reaction
Transfusion Reaction

Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal!

Universal Donor vs. Universal Recipient

Only for emergencies - must be given slowly !

clinical brief
Clinical Brief

Anemia:p. 536

Reduced oxygen carrying ability of blood. Causes??

Polycythemia:

Erythrocytosis: excessive increase in RBCs

Polycythemia vera:

Blood Doping: p. 545

Via direct transfusion, or

EPO use

wbcs leukocytes
WBCs = Leukocytes

Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

Quantity and type determined by differential WBC count

Circulating WBCs are only a small fraction of total WBCs. Most are located in ?

Diapedesis

Chemotaxis

neutrophil pmn
Neutrophil (= PMN)

Up to ~ 70% (~ 2/3) of circulating WBCs

Cytoplasm packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes

phagocytic

eosinophil
Eosinophil

~ 2% - 4% of circulating WBCs

Granules stain with eosin

Increased in allergies and parasitic infections

basophil
Basophil
  • < 1% of circulating WBCs
  • Granules stain with basic dyes and contain histamine
  • Discharge of histamine promotes inflammation at site of injury (Similar to mast cells)
monocyte
Monocyte
  • ~ 2% - 8% of circulating WBCs
  • Large kidney shaped nucleus
  • In tissue called Macrophage
lymphocytes
Lymphocytes
  • ~ 20% - 30% of circulating WBCs
  • Relatively small (slightly larger than RBCs)
  • Large round nucleus
  • B, T, NK
platelets thrombocytes
Platelets = Thrombocytes

Cell fragments of Megakaryocytes

(~ 4,000 thrombocytes per Megakaryocyte)

 ~ 160 m

Lifespan ~ 12 days

involved in blood clotting

abnormal blood cell counts
Abnormal Blood Cell Counts

Leukopenia < 2,500/ L (normal 6000 – 9000)

Leukocytosis > 30,000/ L

Thrombocytopenia: < 80,000/ L (normal ~ 350,000)

Thrombocytosis: > 1,000,000/ L

Also

Lymphopenia vs. _____________

_________vs. Neutrophilia

hemopoiesis blood cell formation
Hemopoiesis = Blood Cell Formation

Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell for all blood cells

  • . . . then differentiation into 4 types of progenitor stem cells:
    • Erythroblast
    • Myeloblast
    • Monoblast
    • Lymphoblast

Fig 20.8

The End

In red bone marrow