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CHAPTER 2

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  1. Neuroscience & Biological Foundations PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation CHAPTER 2 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  2. Lecture Overview • Neural Bases of Behavior • Nervous System Organization • A Tour Through the Brain • Our Genetic Inheritance ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  3. Neuroscience:interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral & mental processes Neural Bases of Psychology ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  4. Our nervous system consists of neurons(cells responsible for receiving & transmitting electrochemical information). Neural Bases of Psychology (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  5. Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  6. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication • Within a neuron, communication results from an action potential(a neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  7. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued) • Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters(chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  8. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued) • Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons. These multiple messages then determine if an action potential occurs or not. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  9. Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  10. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • What happens to excess neurotransmitters or to those that do not “fit” into the adjacent receptor sites? (Answer appears on the next slide.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  11. The sending neuron normally reabsorbs the excess (called “reuptake) or they are broken down by special enzymes. Pause & Reflect: Assessment ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  12. Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life • Key neurotransmitters: • Serotonin • Acetylcholine (ACh) • Dopamine (DA) • Norepinephrine (NE) • Epinephrine (adrenaline) • GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) • Endorphins ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  13. Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect Us • Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture & secrete hormones into the bloodstream ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  14. Why Do We Need Two Communication Systems—Neurotransmitters + Hormones? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  15. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • _____ receive information from other neurons. The _____ carries the neuron’s messages to other body cells. • How does neural communication within neurons differ from communication between neurons? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  16. Nervous System Organization • Central Nervous System (CNS):brain & spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all nerves & neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body • PNS is subdivided into the somatic&autonomic nervous systems • Autonomic nervous system subdivided into sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  17. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  18. Central Nervous System: Important Terms • Neuroplasticity:brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize & change its structure & function throughout the life span • Neurogenesis:process by which new neurons are generated • Stem Cells: immature (uncommitted) cells with the potential to develop into almost any type of cell ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  19. Understanding neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, & stem cells helps make us better informed consumers of scientific research & more knowledgeable participants in political debates. Can you explain why? Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  20. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain • Spinal Cord (transmits information into & out of the brain ) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  21. The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  22. Nervous System Organization: Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • PNS connects CNS to the rest of the body & is subdivided into: • Somatic Nervous System (SNS):connects to sensory receptors & controls skeletal muscles • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions & is further subdivided into: • Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) • Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  23. Nervous System Organization • Anatomy & functions of thesympathetic (arouses) & parasympathetic(calms)nervous systems ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  24. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • You touch a hot stove & then immediately & reflexively pull away. This action was controlled by _____. • After being startled by the sight & sound of a fierce dog rushing toward you, it is most likely that your _____ is dominant. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  25. A Tour Through the Brain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  26. A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain • Three key structures & functions of the hindbrain: • Medulla: life survival functions • Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, & dreaming • Cerebellum: coordination of fine muscular movement, balance, & some aspects of perception & cognition ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  27. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) • Midbrain: collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain; coordinates movement patterns, sleep, & arousal • Reticular Formation: runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, & brainstem; screens incoming information & controls arousal ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  28. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) • Forebrain:collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, & limbic system • Thalamus: relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex • Hypothalamus: responsible for drives, hormones, & regulating the body’s internal environment ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  29. Structures of the Forebrain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  30. Limbic System:interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  31. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • What are the three key structures of the hindbrain? • The _____ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, & limbic system. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  32. Pause & Reflect: Assessment ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  33. A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex • Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left & right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  34. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Continued.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  35. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex • Frontal Lobes:receive & coordinate messages from other lobes; responsible for motor control, speech production, & higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, & memory ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  36. Phineas Gage’s mining accident sent a 13-pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes. How did this affect his short- & long-term behavior & mental processes? Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  37. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Continued) • Parietal Lobes:located at the top of the brain directly behind the frontal lobes; responsible for interpreting bodily sensations • Temporal Lobes:located on each side of the brain above the ears; responsible for audition, language comprehension, memory, & some emotional control ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  38. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Continued) • Occipital Lobes: located at the back of the brain; responsible for vision & visual perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  39. A Tour Through The Brain: Motor Cortex & Somatosensory Cortex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  40. Why are the hands & face on this drawing so large? What do they represent? Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  41. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research • Severing the corpus callosumprovides information on the role & functions of theleft & right hemispheres. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  42. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  43. A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization • The left & right hemispheres of your brain each specialize in particular (but often overlapping) operations. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  44. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • What are the major functions of the four lobes of the brain? • The _____ hemisphere is primarily responsible for language, & it controls the right side of the body. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  45. Our Genetic Inheritance • Behavioral Genetics: studies the relative effects of nature (heredity, genes, & chromosomes) & nurture (environment) on behavior & mental processes ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  46. The nucleus of every cell contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA). Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  47. Tongue-curling is one of the few traits that depends on a specific dominant gene. Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  48. Our Genetic Inheritance: Twin Research ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  49. Evolutionary Psychology:studies how natural selection & adaptation help explain behavior & mental processes Our Genetic Inheritance ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  50. Sex differences in lateralization. Note how activation (red color) is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain on the left, & how it occurs on both hemispheres in the female brain on the right. Our Genetic Inheritance ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010