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Diversity College Founded 1865. Erin Kelley Brian Koslowski Emily Nemeth Leighanne Regan. studentaffairs.com virtual case study competition 2006. Overview of Facebook. Launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, a sophomore at Harvard. Free, online profiling service for students.

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diversity college founded 1865

Diversity CollegeFounded 1865

Erin Kelley

Brian Koslowski

Emily Nemeth

Leighanne Regan

studentaffairs.com virtual case study competition 2006

overview of facebook
Overview of Facebook
  • Launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, a sophomore at Harvard.
  • Free, online profiling service for students.
  • Undergraduate, graduate, staff and faculty with a university email address have access to Facebook.
  • Students can request that their institution be added to the facebook.com website. Facebook needs no administrative approval to add the institution.
  • Facebook is sponsored by outside companies who advertise on the website.
  • Students can set up privacy settings to determine who can view their profile. Note: Few students use this setting.
  • Students can post a wide variety of personal information about lifestyle, hobbies, contact information and pictures.
quick facebook facts
Quick Facebook Facts
  • 15,000 accounts are created everyday
  • 9.4 million unique users log-on on every month
  • Nearly 3/4 of Facebook users sign on at least once every 24 hours
  • Average user signs on 6 times a day
  • Used by over 1500 colleges and universities across the United States
  • Nation wide Facebook tallies 250 million hits a day and ranks 9th overall in Internet traffic
  • Zuckerberg paid 85 dollars per month to rent the server initially to keep the site running
facebook survey at diversity college
Facebook Survey at Diversity College

An initial survey of 60 student leaders was done to determine the impact of Facebook on their campus.


  • 27 men and 33 women were surveyed
  • 22 seniors, 17 juniors, and 21 sophomores
  • 56 of the student leaders had a Facebook profile
  • All but 19 identified the United States as their country of origin

Why students choose to participate in Facebook…

  • To keep in touch with friends across campus, old friends from high school, and those friends on other college campuses
  • Meet new people and find others with similar interests
  • Learn people’s names
  • Look at pictures
  • See what people are involved in on campus
  • Find birthdays
  • Develop residence hall communities
  • To stalk people
  • Created profile due to peer pressure
  • Make a large school seem small
  • Quicker and easier way to communicate with friends and classmates
findings continued
Findings continued…

What are some risks students identified…

  • Privacy violations
  • Stalking/harassment
  • Posting inappropriate photos/information
  • Creating a false identity
  • Identity theft
  • Addictive
  • Hate crimes
  • Source of procrastination
reasons for developing a tutorial for first year students
Reasons for Developing a Tutorial for First Year Students
  • Students usually use more than one profiling site to post information (e.g. myspace.com, livejournal.com, AIM.)
  • Associated risks with posting personal information online like stalking, harassment, and identity theft.
  • Frequency of use, potentially leading to Internet addiction.
  • Diversity College students admitted using Facebook as a means of procrastination.
tutorial structure
Tutorial Structure
  • New students will take the online tutorial during the New Students Orientation.
  • The tutorial is broken down into three areas:
  • Initial Risk Assessment Questionnaire
  • Internet Issues Exploration Section
  • Online Safety Exam
student instructions for tutorial
Student Instructions for Tutorial
  • Take initial risk assessment quiz.
  • Review assessment results.
  • Read exploration topics sections before continuing to Internet exam.
  • Complete Internet exam. Note: You must get eight out of the ten questions correct to pass the exam.
  • Complete evaluation emailed to you after you have completed the exam.

You will now begin the Tutorial!


Diversity College

SAMPLE Part One Risk Assessment Questionnaire

When you are online, how likely are you to do each of the following?

1. Stay up past 2am Internet surfing.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

2. Spend over two hours a day on the Internet doing non-academic related work.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

3. Your logon password is one simple word.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    


Diversity College

SAMPLE Risk Assessment Questionnaire continued…

4. Read the privacy policy for every website I sign up to use.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

5. Run frequent virus checks on my computer.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

6. Safeguard myself against cyberstalking.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

7. Used an online gambling website in the past month.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    


Diversity College

SAMPLE Risk Assessment Questionnaire continued…

8. Entered Internet contests operated by unfamiliar companies.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

9. Responded to unsolicited emails.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    

10. Accept friend requests from unfamiliar people through online profiling websites

such as facebook.com.

Not at all likely Moderately likely Extremely likely

    


Diversity College

Part Two Internet Issues to Explore


Many individuals believe their profile and registration information will stay solely in the hands of Facebook employees. On the contrary, the Facebook privacy policy states, “We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.” In addition, if Facebook were to ever sell the company, they would also sell all users’ information. Facebook also reserves the right to “supplement” your profile with other information. The website states, “We use the information about you that we have collected from other sources to supplement your profile unless you specify in your privacy settings that you do not want this to be done.” Description of “other sources” is not provided.



It is important to keep in mind that online companies often promise consumers their information will remain private unless otherwise directed by the user; however, this promise has been dishonored in the past. Toysmart, a company that promised privacy to its users, was permitted to sell its users’ personal information despite objections of 39 state attorneys general.



In 2002, it was reported that 62 percent of female Internet users and 20 percent of male internet users were victims of some form of cyberstalking. Some types of cyberstalking include: direct threats, hacking, following the victim from site to site, building websites targeting the victim, posing as the victim and attacking others, and contacting victim’s family or employer. By posting personal information such as home address, phone number, school address or spring break plans, students increase their risk of becoming victims of cyberstalking.


tips for your privacy
Tips for Your Privacy
  • Delete cookies weekly
  • Only provide necessary registration information
  • Don’t post your contact information if possible
  • Make sure to log off public computers
  • Read the privacy statement of the website or company
  • If you are confused about the policy statement, contact the company
online stalking
Online Stalking

The average age range of college students is 18-22 years which leads some to believe that these are the only individuals who can use Facebook. Students find security in the fact that they are only interacting with other “college age” students. The reality, though, is Facebook permits anyone with an .edu address to use their services which would include students, college professors and staff, and alumni. As of 2002 the oldest living “worker” is a professor who is 102 while the youngest student recorded in 2005 was 10 years of age. Both individuals have an .edu account showing that a wide age group has access to Facebook.

http://www.messiah.edu/news/2002/MC-081-02.html http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-06/28/content_455203.htm

online stalking20
Online Stalking

Facebook does acknowledge that it does not want anyone under the age of 13 using its services; however, the organization has no direct way of tracking this information. If the underage user is discovered, their account will be terminated. Cyberstalking is a real and serious danger considering how much information you can post on Facebook as a student. Currently, you are permitted to post your phone number, address, photograph, birthday, hometown, spring break plans and other personal information that could lead a stalker directly to your home, your school or your spring break location. Cyberstalking has been minor and extreme in nature ranging from a threatening email to murder.

tips to protect yourself from online stalking
Tips to Protect Yourself from Online Stalking
  • Don't respond to flaming (provocation online).
  • Choose a genderless screen name.
  • Don't flirt online, unless you're prepared for the consequences. This is just like real life. Yes, you have the right to flirt and you have the right to a sexy nickname, however the more obvious you are, the more likely you are to arouse unwanted attention from unwanted suitors.
  • Save offending messages and report them to your service provider.
  • If someone makes threats in a chat room or on a message board, notify the moderator or Web site operator right away.
  • Don’t confront the stalker/harasser, this only arouses more anger or emotional attacks.
  • Don't give out any personal information about yourself or anyone else link to private surfing info.
  • Get out of a situation online that has become hostile, log off or surf elsewhere.
  • Google yourself to make sure no personal information is posted by others about you.


free speech
Free Speech

Facebook reserves the right to review the information you post and remove or delete it from your Facebook account. Facebook is permitted to decide what information qualifies as defamatory, offensive or illegal and will use the information against you if necessary in a civil suit. You can be sued for defamatory information which is any false or misleading about another individual or organization. Individual colleges also reserve the right to take action against students who post inappropriate information on the Facebook accounts. At Fisher College, a sophomore was expelled “for his online critique of a campus police officer” Students at Northern Kentucky University were charged with code violations when a keg was seen in a residence hall room picture online. In an extreme case, a University of Oklahoma student was visited by the Secret Service because of assassination references in comments regarding President Bush.

http://www.facebook.com/terms.php Ebbinghouse, C. (1997). Taming the wicked, wicked net: Acceptable use and the internet. Searcher,

5(7), 1070-4795. Schweitzer, S., Globe Staff. (October, 2005). Fisher college expels student over website entries Bugeja, M. (1/23/06) Facing the Facebook. Chronicle of Higher Education Ibid.

free speech23
Free Speech

Are these examples violations of the First Amendment? Facebook and other companies enforce these policies despite the U.S. Supreme Court ruling against the 1996 Communications Decency Act (CDA), which outlawed "indecent" communications online. In other words, the Court recognizes the Internet as a free speech zone, thus protecting it by the First Amendment.


tips to protect your free speech
Tips to Protect Your Free Speech
  • Know your rights!
  • Before clicking “yes” and accepting your registration, make sure you have the Internet site’s terms of use.
  • Be familiar with your school’s policy regarding Internet postings and your school’s code of student conduct.
  • Be smart with what you post online because it’s public information! Your Facebook account is accessible not only to your peers, but also employers, parents and school and law enforcement officials.
  • Make sure others are not using your screen name to post defamatory, illegal or offensive information. If you think this is happening, contact the website immediately. You may also contact school authorities.
identity theft
Identity Theft
  • The common definition of identity theft is the stealing of a victim’s personal information to commit crimes such as making fraudulent charges on a credit card. 10 million people per year are victims of identity theft, and often it is at the hands of someone they know. College is a high-risk environment for identity theft, because of ready Internet access, the barrage of credit applications students receive, downloading of music and videos, and student loan information.

O'Neill, B. & Xiao, J.J. (2004) Consumer practices to reduce identity theft risk: An exploratory study. Consumer Interests Annual, 50, p. 125-127.

tips to protect yourself from identity theft
Tips to Protect Yourself from Identity Theft
  • Read the privacy statements on websites that ask for your personal information to see who will be viewing it.
  • Take yourself off the pre-approved for credit pipeline by calling the hotline run by the three major credit bureaus at 888-567-8688.
  • Check your credit report for any unusual activity. Six states have mandated that free credit reports be made available to consumers, and in other states it costs only about nine dollars. You can check this by calling the three major credit bureaus: Equifax (800-685-1111), Experian (888-397-3742) and TransUnion (800-88-4213).
  • Shred “pre-approved for credit” envelopes and other items that have your identity on it.
  • Protect your privacy and computer by purchasing antivirus, firewall and antispyware software.
  • Visit the website created by the Department of Education on identity theft at www.ed.gov/misused.

Marbaix, J.R. (2004). Lessons in Privacy. U.S. News & World Report, 137( 7), p. 74-75.

internet addiction
Internet Addiction

College students are considered to be at high-risk for problems because of ready access to the Internet and flexible time schedules. While Internet Addiction is not yet recognized by the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria book the DSM-IV, many researchers believe that addiction to the Internet does share similar symptoms with substance abuse such as tolerance, withdrawal, craving and negative life consequences. While Internet addiction in the 1990s was believed to be most common in young males, today’s research has found that it can affect a wide range of people. Usually, high Internet use is associated with emotional loneliness.

Griffiths, M., Miller, H., Gillespie, T., & Sparrow, P. (1999) Internet usage and internet addiction in students and its implications for learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15, p. 85-90.

indicators of internet addiction
Indicators of Internet Addiction
      • Loss of sleep due to use
      • Not meeting obligations at school, work or in personal relationships
      • Not being able to manage internet time well
  • Walter, E. (1999). Idaho professors study internet junkies. Community College Week, 11(12), p.
  • 16.
ways to assess your internet use
Ways to Assess Your Internet Use
  • Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet (think about previous online activity or anticipate next online session)?
  • Do you feel the need to use the Internet with increasing amounts of time to achieve satisfaction?
  • Have you repeatedly made unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop Internet use?
  • Do you feel restless, moody, depressed, or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop Internet use?
  • Do you stay online longer than originally intended?
  • Have you jeopardized or risked the loss of a significant relationship, job, educational or career opportunity because of the Internet?
  • Have you lied to family members, therapists, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet?
  • Do you use the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or of relieving a dysphoric mood (e.g., feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, and depression)?

Young, K.S. (2004)  Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its

Consequences. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, p. 402-415.

part three internet exam
Part Three Internet Exam

1) How many people are victims of identity theft a year:

a. 1 million b. 5 million c. 10 million d. 50 million

2)What are three indicators of Internet Addiction?

Loss of sleep, not meeting obligations at school, work or in personal relationships, not being able to manage internet time well

Loss of sleep, online-compulsive disorder, not being able to manage internet time well.

Pulmonary emboli, work or in personal relationships, not being able to manage internet time well.

Alcohol abuse, dancing, loss of sleep

internet exam
Internet Exam

3) What is an example of a strong password?

a. L5d7# b. Destiny c. Fido d. [Your] name

4) Where can you report cyber crime?

a. DC5 b. DSM-IV c. APA d. a. IC3

5) Which one of these answers will NOT help you to check your credit report?

a. TransUnion b. ExportCredit c.Equifax d. Experian

6) The estimated age range of people permitted to use college Facebook is:

a. 10-102 b. 18-22 c. 17-26 d. 15-57

internet exam32
Internet Exam

7) Facebook is permitted to share my profile information with:

a. No one b. My family and friends c. Any one at my school d. Any third party with which Facebook has a relationship

8) What are three ways to avoid cyberstalking?

Don’t give out any personal information about yourself, e.g. phone number, address, spring break plans.

Save messages that appear threatening and offensive and give them to campus authorities/security.

Google yourself to make sure no one is posting information about you online.

Ignore messages that appear threatening and offensive because they will most likely go away.

internet exam33
Internet Exam

9) In 2002, it was reported that this percentage of women and men were victims of cyberstalking:

a. 62:20 respectively b. 23:5 respectively c. 56:45 respectively d. 27:45 respectively

10) Free speech is your First Amendment right, but there are limitations to this right when you are surfing Facebook. The following 3 postings can be removed by Facebook employees:

a. Offensive information b. Self-defaming comments c. Illegal information d. Defamatory comments about others


assessment of tutorial
Assessment of Tutorial
  • Online self-response survey will be sent to all students after the online exam.
  • Ten small focus groups comprised of 8-10 first year students will occur in September 2006.
  • Respondents will be entered into a raffle for gift certificates to the campus bookstore.
purpose of content and questions
Purpose of content and questions
  • To give first year college students a broad understanding of the issues and risks associated with internet use.
  • A wide range of literature was reviewed to view the students as both internet consumers and participants in a new collegial community.
  • The students are required to critically assess their internet use at the beginning of the tutorial so that students can reflect on their own internet behavior through the exploration section and exam.
  • At the end of the tutorial section, a short exam is given and students get eight out of ten questions correct in order to pass the exam. These questions were chosen to demonstrate the severity of internet risks while at the same time informing them of prevention strategies.
implications for faculty
Implications for Faculty
  • Many faculty are forming Facebook groups such as, “Faculty Members Desperately Trying To Relate To their Students Through Technology (FMDTTRTTSTT)” to understand the format of Facebook and the exchanges between students. These faculty have posted their office hours, course load, and email addresses. These professors also respond to students’ comments that are posted on their “wall.”
  • Students can develop a greater rapport with their professors by having a common space outside of the classroom and faculty office hours.
  • Faculty can also use Facebook to learn about students who are in their class—i.e. large lecture classes.
implications for residence life staff
Implications for Residence Life Staff
  • Some Residence Directors (RD) have discussed with their staffs the consequences of posting illegal, offensive and defamatory comments on their jobs.
  • Facebook has been used as a source of visual identification in judicial matters, e.g. face shot.
  • RDs have accessed Resident Assistants’ (RA) profiles on Facebook to collect trivia about them to prepare for an ice breaker at the beginning of RA training. This exercise led to a discussion around appropriate Facebook etiquette and role modeling.
  • Facebook can be used to organize a community list serve, e.g. residence hall floors and house council staffs. This can be used to match faces to names more quickly and can be used effectively in posting upcoming events or meetings. Facebook communities such as these can also be appropriate resources for contact information.
  • The University of Massachusetts Amherst has posted the RA job description on Facebook.com to advertise to Facebook users. Recruitment for the RA position have been modeled on the homepage for Facebook in order to appeal to millennial student interest.
what did we learn
What did we learn?
  • The use of Facebook and other online profiling websites incorporates many benefits, but also many risk factors associated with their use.
  • Technology is still a very new Student Affairs issue, so more appropriate and best practices must be determined.
  • Quantitative studies are extremely limited within the field of Student Affairs regarding students’ usage of online profiling and their developmental effects.
  • Many recent incidents have occurred across the country in regards to online profiling prompting a necessary nation wide institutional policy changes and response to the growing phenomenon.
thank you


Thank you to studentaffairs.com for the opportunity to participate in the 2006 virtual case study competition!