… Projects … How to be more successful?
Satisfied Final Beneficiaries? or
Satisfied Donor / Funding Agency ?
What are the main problems with Projects? and WHY?
Please write 3-5 problems you experienced in projects each on one card
PREPARATION versus IMPLEMENTATION
PREPARATION … Planning for: Relevance … Feasibility… Sustainability …
Relevance WHY this project?
Relevance What is Relevance? • Problems versus Needs (Final Beneficiaries) • Policy objectives • Proof from lessons (evaluations)
Feasibility What is Feasibility? Effectiveness (Results plus Assumptions) Efficiency (Activities to Results)
Sustainability What is Sustainability? • Policy match • Ownership (socio – cultural – gender) • Appropriate Technology • Environment • Management • Finance
What Evaluations teach us? • Relevance is often questioned • Delays • Unforeseen risks (poor design) ??? • Participation of stakeholders weak – other priorities • Duplication, triplication, quadruplicating …. • (Political) sabotage and • Corruption
Wrong project design ? • Solutions offered do not address the actual problems (relevance)? • Too narrow components (feasibility)? • Based on wrong assumptions? • Gender issues ignored? • Ownership & Sustainability?
Corrective Action … required! Introduction of proper processes during each phase of the Project Cycle: PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT!
Project Cycle Manager Project Manager
EVALUATION Project Cycle Manager Project Manager
What can easily go wrong? My ‘brilliant’ idea PLAN (LogFrame) IMPROVED SITUATION
‘Traditional planning process’ (proposal writing) Without consultations: Quick, easy (& dirty) project formulation WHY?
(We think) WE KNOW WHAT IS RIGHT !!!!
WHO’s IMPROVED SITUATION ? Hidden agendas?
Even unconsciously !!!! But development cooperation is different
Prove R E L E V A N C E
PROBLEMS ! Why do people not like to speak about problems? • Painful? • Emotional? • Do we actually know? • Or even understand? • We think we know!
SUPPLIERS RECIPIENTS ANALYSIS “POOR”PRESENT SITUATION problems! functional relationships PLAN (LogFrame) IMPROVED SITUATION
Stakeholder Analysis ! For WHO (End-users / beneficiaries) and by WHO (contributing agencies)?
How ‘buy in’ may happen? • Understanding of interdependency • Emotional bonding through understanding of problems = ‘feel the pain’ (story telling) • Social control through peers • Agreements on results (= mirrored problems)
How to keep them on board? • Make them (emotionally) understand their relevance and importance through self-discovery in a workshop with equals. • Make their positions publicly knows (in and after a workshop) • Remind them on Results (Results Oriented Monitoring – ROM and Results-Based Accountability - RBA)
Poor life condition in Area X High unemployment in area X Unexperienced workers too expensive for companies Unemployed people unable to enter the labour market Skills of unemployed workers outdated Parents with young children are tied to home High labour costs Demand of local goods decreased WHY involved? Feel the pain!
Increased development in area X Increased employment in area X IN OUT People prepared to enter labour market New workers hired by businesses People skills meet the request of labour market Support with childcare provided Labour costs affordable for businesses Demand of goods increased WHAT should be achieved?
FEASIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY
Logical Framework Matrix + + +
“Forking” provides insight in other components (and other stakeholders) that are needed to achieve the higher objective. These can either be incorporated into the project design or if this is not possible be monitored as apparent RISKS.