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Biological poisons. The term toxin is reserved for any toxicant of biological origin. Toxin fall into several broad categories based on the organism that produce them. Bacteria Fungi: Mycotoxins Algae: Phycotoxins Plant: Phytotoxins Animal: Zootoxins. BACTERIAL TOXIN.

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biological poisons
Biological poisons

The term toxin is reserved for any toxicant of biological origin. Toxin fall into several broad categories based on the organism that produce them.

Bacteria

Fungi: Mycotoxins

Algae: Phycotoxins

Plant: Phytotoxins

Animal: Zootoxins

bacterial toxin
BACTERIAL TOXIN

Botulinum Toxin

Neurotoxin proteins (Anaerobic condition)

Clostridium botulinum. (A-G)

The most acutely substance, with lethal dose 200-300 pg/kg (100 grams could kill most of human on earth)

Botulism

Toxin is composed of 2 polypeptide chains that are connected by a disulfide bond:

Light chain 50-kD

Heavy chain 100-kD

light chain of the toxin
Light chain of the toxin

Protease enzyme (attack on Fusion protein) at neuromuscular junction, preventing neurotransmitter vesicles from anchoring to the membrane.

Inhibit acetylcholine release

Interferes with nerve impulses.

Produce paralysis of muscles.

heavy chain of toxin
Heavy chain of toxin

Is important for targeting the toxin to specific types of axon terminals.

Attaches the toxin to proteins on the surface of axon terminals so that it can be taken into neurons by endocytosis.

Flaccid paralysis

Treatment: Antitoxin antibodies

tetanus toxin
Tetanus toxin

Casual agent: Clostridium tetani.

Greek (tetanos: Stretched, rigid).

Neuromuscular toxin.

Tetnospasmin or Spasmogenic toxin.

“Lockjaw”

tetnospasmin

Heavy chain 100-Kd

Light chain 50-kD

Interfere

with protein vesicles

Block the release of

CNS inhibitory

neurotransmitter

(GABA)

CNS tetanic spasms

of skeletal muscle

TETNOSPASMIN
endotoxins
Endotoxins

Endotoxin is not secreted in soluble form by bacteria as are exotoxins but rather in chemical components in the cell wall of bacteria that is released when the bacteria lyses (e.g. LPS)

Fever.

Inflammation.

Lowering of blood pressure.

Septic shock

fungal toxin
FUNGAL TOXIN

Poison Mushrooms

Mushroom toxins

Amantin

Coprine

Gyromitrin

Muscrine

Orellanine

Ibotenic acid

primary toxicity associated with the mushroom
Primary toxicity associated with the Mushroom

Gastrointestinal

Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal Cramping.

Disulfiram like effects

No symptoms unless alcohol is consumed with in 2-3 days.

Neurotoxic

Coma, Convulsion, Excitement, Depression.

Cytotoxic

Destruction of cells, especially liver and kideny

mycotoxins
MYCOTOXINS

Aflatoxins(Produced by molds)

Peanuts,corn,wheat,rice,dairy products

ASPERGILLUS.

Tropical & subtropical (Temperature, humidity high).

Acute cases (Liver damage).

Chronic cases associated with liver cancer.

108 people died from eating contaminated grains (India).

Killed 100,000 turkeys that were eating moldy peanuts.

Aflatoxins B1 is most potent HEPATOCARCINOGEN.

ergolines
Ergolines

Contamination of rye by Calvicepspurpurea(Ergot fungus)

Convulsive Symptoms(e.g., Painful seizures and spasms, diarrhea, Itching, headaches, nausea and vomiting)

Central Nervous System Symptoms(e.g., hysteria, mania or psychosis).

Gangrenous symptoms (e.g., dry gangrene due to vasoconstriction of distal structures, fingers and toes; weak peripheral pulse; loss of peripheral sensation; edema; ultimately death and loss of affected tissues).

animal toxins
ANIMAL TOXINS

SPIDER VENOM

Widow spider

(lactrodectusspp).

Neurotoxic

Latrodectism

(Pain first at localized at lymph nodes,Nausea,hypertension,transiet tachycardia, bradycardia,profuse sweating, oliguria, cramps)

Inject venom into skin (0.1mm) 0.002mg

slide17
Brown recluse.
  • Cytotoxic
  • Hemolytic
  • 0.48mg/kg LD50

Brazilian wandering.

0.00061-0.00157mg/kg

scorpions
SCORPIONS

2,000 Species

Neurotoxin

Death stalker (L. quinquestriatus)

scorpions1
SCORPIONS

Parabuthus

Androctonus

Tityus

hymenopterans
Hymenopterans

Insects

Local tissue injury

Systemic toxicity

Anaphylactic response

LD50

Honey bee (2.8mg/kg)

Velvet ant (71mg/kg)

Paper wasp (2.4mg/kg)

Yellow jacket (3.5mg/kg)

Fire ants (0.66mg/kg)

slide21

Box Jellyfish

60 tentacles

5,000 nematocysts

Treatment: vinegar, ice pack

mollusks
Mollusks

Blue ringed octopus.

Painlessly kill a human with in 5 min.

Inject neuromuscular venom

maculotoxin and tetrodotoxin.

Cone snails.

Conusgeographus (cigarette snail)

shellfish
Shellfish

Amnesic shellfish poisoning.

Diarrheic shellfish poisoning.

Neurotoxin shellfish poisoning.

Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

amphibians
Amphibians

Poison dart or “poison arrow”

100 toxins identified in the skin secretions of poison dart frogs (Dendrobates & Phyllobates).

Phyllobates produce neurotoxin, batrachotoxin.

LD50 . 50µg

Some toads produce epinephrine, norepinephrine.

reptiles
Reptiles

3,500 species of snakes worldwide.

Venomous snakes fall into six families:

Elapidae

Hydrophiidae

Laticaudidae

Viperidae

Colubridae

Crotalidae

crotalidae rattlesnakes water moccasins copperheads bushmaster
Crotalidae(rattlesnakes,watermoccasins,copperheads,bushmaster)Crotalidae(rattlesnakes,watermoccasins,copperheads,bushmaster)
snake venom
Snake venom

Poison is inhaled/ingested, venom is injected.

Hemotoxic heart and cardiovascular system.

Cytotoxic local damage.

Neurotoxic brain and nervous system.

Viperidae is hemotoxic and cytotoxic.

Hydrophiidae and laticaudidaeneurotxic.

Snake venom complex mixture.

snake venom1
Snake venom

Protein,peptide,inorganiccations,metals,

Lipid,carbohydrates,amines,AA.

Enzymes.

The typical venom consist of 25 different enzymes.

The most damaging is proteolytic enzyme (proteases,peptidases,proteinases,hydrolases).

antivenin
Antivenin

First was described more than 100y ago.

Horses, sheep exposed to graduated doses of venom until become hyper immunized

Immunoglobulin.

Animal derived antivenin have potential for hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis.

A cocktail of antivenins can be used against broad range of venoms.