Poisons and Drugs. Prof. Monzir S. Abdel-Latif Chemistry Department Islamic University of Gaza http://www.monzir-pal.net. Syllabus. In this course, it is anticipated to cover the following topics: Introduction to Toxicology Epidemiological Studies Toxicodynamics and Toxicokinetics
Prof. Monzir S. Abdel-Latif
Islamic University of Gaza
In this course, it is anticipated to cover the following topics:
Exposure is a function of the following factors:
For highly toxic chemicals, the tolerable exposure is close to zero
In fact, this constitutes a problem since we do need reliable data relating exposure to injury or adverse effect in humans.
Unfortunately, what can be considered as an injury or an adverse effect is not well defined and debatable. We will look at this problem later
Altered food consumption
Altered body or organ weight
Altered enzyme or hormone levels, ..etc
Gases and vapors are easily inhaled but inhalation of particles depends upon their size and shape. The smaller the particle, the further into the respiratory tract it can go. Dusts with an effective aerodynamic diameter of between 0.5 and 7 µm can persist in the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles after deposition. Peak retention depends upon the aerodynamic shape but is mainly of those particles with an effective aerodynamic diameter of between 1 and 2 µm.
Some insoluble particles such as asbestos, coal dust and silica dust will readily cause fibrosis of the lung
A chemical may accumulate if absorption exceeds excretion; this is particularly likely with substances that combine a fairly high degree of lipid solubility with chemical stability. Such chemicals are found in the group of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), including several organochlorine pesticides, which are now largely, but not entirely, banned from use