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Chapter 23 Objectives. List the differences between Jovian and Terrestrial planets. Describe the major characteristics of all planets. Discuss possible theories on the formation of the universe. List and define the other minor members of the solar system. . NEED TO KNOW.

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chapter 23 objectives
Chapter 23 Objectives
  • List the differences between Jovian and Terrestrial planets.
  • Describe the major characteristics of all planets.
  • Discuss possible theories on the formation of the universe.
  • List and define the other minor members of the solar system.
need to know

1. The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of dust and gases is called the ____.

2. Which planet has a greater mass than the combined mass of all the remaining planets and their moons?

3. Which planet is associated with the Great Dark Spot?

4. Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is believed to be a ____.

5. Most asteroids lie between the orbits of ____.

6. Which planet is considered the least dense?

7. Which of the following is NOT a Jovian/Gas planet?

8. Which planet has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and high surface temperatures?

formation of the solar system
Formation of the Solar System
  • Began to look like a solar system about 4.6 billion y.a.
  • Nebular Theory: The sun and the planets formed from a rotating disk of dust and gases.
  • Nebula: Cloud of dust and gas in space. (usually about 92* hydrogen, 7* helium, 1* other)
formation of the solar system5
Formation of the Solar System
  • Remember!: any two objects in space attract each other- GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION
  • Accretion Disk: A rotating disk of gas and dust matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects
  • The growth of planets began as solid bits of

matter that collided and clumped together

through a process called accretion.

  • Planetesimals: Small irregular

shaped body formed by colliding




“Planet”: Greek for wanderer

terrestrial planets
Terrestrial Planets

Terrestrial: Earth like; Relatively small and rocky.









jovian planets
Jovian Planets

Jovian: Jupiter like; Huge gas giants.









comparing planets
Comparing Planets

Size: The most obvious difference.

Rate of Rotation: Terrestrial planets spin slower on average.

Density: Terrestrial planets are much more dense.(Terrestrial = 5 times of water; Jovian = 1.5 times)

Chemical Makup: Terrestrial planets are rocky (silicates), Jovian planets are made up of gas.


My very eager mother just sent us nine pizza’s.

Marys violent Eyes Make John Stay Up Night

Can you make your own acronym?










  • Second smallest planet. (Just larger then our moon)
  • Diameter: 3,032 miles (1/3 of Earth)
  • No moons.
  • Revolves quickly: 88 Earth Days.
  • Rotates slowly: 59 Earth Days.
  • Surface features resemble the moon.
  • Very dense planet large iron core.
  • Has the greatest temperature range: -279 F at night, 800 F during the day hot enough to melt lead.
  • Cratered highlands and smooth features like maria.
  • Mercury has only one season due to the fact that it has no tilt.
  • It rotates 1 1/2 times per every revolution. Distance from the sun 36,000,000 miles (.37 AU)
  • Orbit is nearly a perfect circle.
  • Rotation: 244 Earth days.
  • Revolution: 225 Earth days.
  • Similar to Earth’s size, density, and mass and location in the solar system.
  • Commonly referred to as Earth’s twin.
  • Distance: 67,000,000 miles (.7 AU)
  • Diameter: 7,519 miles (similar to Earth)
  • Surface temperature can reach 887 F!
  • Atmosphere is 97 percent Carbon Dioxide and 15 ½ miles thick.
  • Atmospheric pressure is 90 times Earth’s.
  • Volcanic eruptions and tectonic activity have shaped Venus’s surface.
  • Suffers from the Greenhouse effect due to the heavy CO2 atmosphere.
  • Retrograde Motion (reversal of motion in its orbit E-W)
  • Distance: 93,000,000 miles (1 AU)
  • Diameter: 7926 miles
  • Moons:1 (Luna)
  • Revolution: about 365 days
  • Rotation: about 24 hours
  • Surface temperature ranges from about -30 F to 130 F
  • Atmosphere: Nitrogen and Oxygen
  • Distance: 142,000,000 miles (1.5 AU)
  • Diameter: 4192 miles ( ½ of Earth)
  • 2 moons: Deimos & Phobos

Revolution: 687 Earth days

Rotation: 1.025 Earth days

Temperature -220°F to 68°F

Atmosphere: CO2 & small amounts of water vapor.

  • White Polar Ice Caps
    • Possible life???
  • Olympus Mons over 2 ½ times the size of Mt. Everest
  • Atmosphere is 1 % of Earth’s atm. density
  • Red surface (Iron Oxide)
  • Water under the surface?
  • Terraforming – creating a more habitable living environment. What problems would we run into?????????
life on mars
Life on Mars?
  • Some areas of Mars exhibit drainage patterns similar to those on created by streams on Earth.
    • Evidence of evaporate minerals and geologic formations associated with liquid water.

Identified: Spring like gullies created from a collapse of surface material or from liquid water?

Because water is essential for life, scientists are very eager to locate and find liquid or frozen water.

asteroid belt

Asteroid Belt

  • Most asteroid lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • Fragments of a broken planet or material left over from the formation of Jupiter?

Asteroid: Small rocky body revolving around our sun.

Look like “flying mountains.”

Total mass together = 1/1000 of Earth’s

  • A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface. While in space it is called a meteoroid. When it enters the atmosphere, air resistance causes the body to heat up and emit light, thus forming a fireball, also known as a

meteor or shooting star.

  • Definition: pieces of rocky and metallic materials held together by frozen gases.
  • “Dirty Snowball”
  • A small glowing nucleus with a diameter of only a few kilometers can sometimes be detected within a coma.
  • A comets tail always points away from the sun.
  • The sun’s radiation and solar wind “push” the particles off the comet.
  • Halley’s Comet revolves around the sun once every 76 years.
jupiter ruler of the gods greek name zeus
JupiterRuler of the gods – Greek name Zeus

Atmosphere: Hydrogen and Helium

Jupiter has rings too!!!! Not even visible with a telescope.

  • Diameter : 88,736 miles
  • Distance: 483,000,000 miles (5.2 A.U.)
  • Moons: 63 (that we know of)
  • Revolution: 11.86 Earth years.
  • Atmospheric pressure strong enough to compress Hydrogen gas to a liquid.
  • Rotation: 9.8 Earth hours
  • Surface Temperature: ~ -280°F
  • If Jupiter were 10 times larger, it would have evolved into a star.
  • Contains more matter than all of the other planets combined.
  • Clouds are organized in dark belts and light zones.
  • The Great Red Spot: An atmospheric system larger than Earth. (hurricane-like disturbance)
  • Surrounded by rings (dust, gas, and debris – ice)
  • The Great Red Spot
Jupiter has been referred to as a mini Solar System because of the thousands of small bodies it directly controls through its gravity.
galileo s moons io callisto europa ganymede
Galileo’s Moons Io, Callisto, Europa, Ganymede

Voyager 1 took this photo of Jupiter and two of its satellites, Io on the left and Europa on the right. Io is about 217,000 mi above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 372,000 mi above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region shows two shades of red, possibly indicating different surface materials.

  • Diameter: 75,000 miles
  • Distance : 887,000,000 miles (9.5 AU)
  • Moons: 46
  • Revolution:29.5 Earth years
  • Rotation:10.2 Earth hours
  • Temperature ~ -300°F
  • Until 1977 Astronomers thought it was the only planet with rings (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have rings).
  • Titan is one of the few moons in the solar system known to contain an atmosphere.
  • Saturn could float in water due to density
  • Moons: 27
  • Revolution:84.0 Earth years
  • Rotation: 7.2 Earth hours
  • Temperature: ~ -350°F

Diameter: 32,193 miles

Distance: 1,784,000,000 miles (19.2 AU)

  • Discovered by accident in 1781 by William Herschel through his homemade telescope.
  • Each pole has constant sunlight for 42 years.
  • Blue in color
  • Rotates on its side, nearly perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.
  • Uranus lies twice as far from the Sun as Saturn
  • Diameter: 30,775 miles
  • Distance: 2,796,000,000 miles (30 AU)
  • Moons : 13
  • Revolution: 164.9 Earth years
  • Rotation: 16.1 Earth hours
  • Temperature: ~ - 360°F
  • White clouds called “scooters” travel very quickly around the planet.
  • Moon Triton has a thin atmosphere. Coldest
  • place known in the solar system at 34.5 K.
  • Great Dark Spot huge rotating storm.
  • Frozen methane clouds.
  • Sometimes the 9th planet in the solar system.

Picture taken in 1994 when pluto was within 30 billion miles (~30 AU)

Wasn’t discovered until 1930

  • Diameter: 1,423 miles
  • Distance: 3,666,000,000 miles (39.5 AU)
  • Moons: 1 (Charon)
  • Revolution: 247.7 years
  • Rotation: 54 hours
  • Temperature: ~ -365°F
pluto update


According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity.

In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit.

Pluto has been demoted because it does not dominate its neighborhood.

Charon, its large "moon," is only about half the size of Pluto, while all the true planets are far larger than their moons.

Pluto will now be dubbed a dwarf planet.

Pluto and Charon as seen by the

Hubble Space Telescope.