Chapter 23 Objectives. 1. The United States entered the First World War not “to make the world safe for democracy” as President Wilson claimed, but to safeguard American economic interests abroad. Assess the validity of this statement. . Intro Quote.
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Chapter 23 Objectives • 1. The United States entered the First World War not “to make the world safe for democracy” as President Wilson claimed, but to safeguard American economic interests abroad. Assess the validity of this statement.
Intro Quote • The assassination of one man (and his wife), no matter how important he was, should not have thrown the world into the worst war to that point in history. When Gavrilo Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand (and his wife) in an open car in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, he set a match to a powder keg that had been smoldering for some time.
Causes of WWI • M – Militarism • European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world • A – Alliances • European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power • I – Imperialism • France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia • economic and political control over other countries…… • these countries were in competition for colonies • N – Nationalism • Countries proud of their heritage and culture • Similar to patriotism • Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country • Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
Nationalism • Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. • Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. • This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo
ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND franz Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.
Imperialism COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900 European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world….The Great White Fleet
Alliances Central Powers Triple Alliance Allied Powers Triple Entente Great Britain Germany France Austrian-Hungarian Empire Russia Italy Turkey
ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • June 28Assassination at Sarajevo • July 28Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • July 30Russia began mobilization • 4. August 1Germany declared war on Russia alliances1
ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • August 3Germany declared war on France • 6. August 3Great Britain declared war on Germany • August 6Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. • August 12Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary alliances2
US IN 1914 • Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. • US was officially NEUTRAL
On which side should we stand? • Whereas trade in 1914 with the Central Powers amounted to $70 million, trade with the Allied Powers was $825 million. • Theodore Roosevelt thought Wilson should have entered on the side of the Allied Powers. • Many Americans pointed out, however, that through immigration we had acquired many blood ties with the Central Powers (11 million in fact). • As a stiff Allied blockade set in, trade with the Central Powers dropped by 1916 to $1.3 million. The US increased its trade with the Allied Powers to $3.2 billion by 1916, the year before we entered the war. • TR would eventually get his wish, and he would eventually lose a son, Quentin, in the fighting.
US Policy Before WWI • US believed • It had the right to trade with the warring nations • Warring nations must respect our neutrality • in the freedom of the seas • German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality SANDWICH MAN
GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM battle fronts • German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. • Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army • Belgium puts up a strong fight. • 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. • France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
Stalemate and Warfare Stalemate • By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. • When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. • Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare • Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. • Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. • As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
Submarine Warfare • The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. • Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats • Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain. • By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships
Submarine Warfare Sinking of the Lusitania • May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. • Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. • Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. • U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. • US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians • After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany.
war zone X - Sussex
Submarine Warfare Sinking of the Lusitania and Sussex • Then the Arabic is sunk resulting in the Arabic Pledge • Then the Sussex is sunk resulting in the Sussex Pledge March 1916 • Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians.
Preparedness vs Pacifism • Wilson did not intervene for either side b/c of re-election and domestic division • Economic and militarily preparations debated by pacifists and interventionists. However, by 1916 military armament largely under way • Wilson won extremely close 1916 b/c of association w/ ability to keep US independent, although Dems barely held on to Congressional majorities • President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” …. • After election Wilson wanted country unified and justified if to enter war • Wilson will begin pro-war rhetoric: we should fight to create a new progressive world order and not fight for material gains • January 1917 Germany began offensive and continuation of unrestricted submarine warfare to defeat Allies before US entrance;
Zimmerman Telegram • February Zimmerman Telegram urged Mex to join w/ Germany (increased public sentiment toward war); • March Russian Revolution toppled czar for republican govt
ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes
ZIMMERMAN NOTE with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes
WILSON'S WAR SPEECH • When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war. • Principles to fight for: • The right is more precious than peace • war to end all war • The world must be safe for democracy. • defend human rights • defend our trade • neutrality • freedom of the seas • violation of international law
THE US ENTERS THE WAR • Immediately w/ US entrance Allied navy able to dramatically reduce sinking’s in troop + supply convoys • 1917 withdrawal of Russian forces after Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) led Germans to put resources on Western Front, Allies needed US ground troops
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION vs Vladamir Lenin Czar Nichol • Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communisticstate • CAUSES • Food and fuel shortages • Striking workers • Terrible loses in WWI • Czar was a weak ruler • Marxist propaganda spread by Lenin • EFFECTS • King overthrown • Russia pulls out of the war • Russia becomes a communistic country • Germany sends Zimmerman Note to Mexico
The American Expeditionary Force • US army too small to supply needed troops • April 1917 Wilson urged passage of Selective Service Act to draft soldiers into American Expeditionary Force • 21 to 30 yrs. and later extended to 40 yrs. of age. • AEF was diverse-- women served as auxiliaries in non-combat roles; African-American soldiers served in segregated units or had menial roles
24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. • 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI • 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat) • Volunteers and draftees • 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units. • General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918 Selective Service Act
The Military Struggle • US ground forces insignificant until spring 1918; AEF under Gen John Pershing maintained command structure independent from other Allies • German offensive in the summer of 1918 to capture Paris, France to win the war. • US forced tipped stalemate + balance of power to Allies--- June 1918 helped repel German offensive at Chateau-Thierry • Beginning Sept US forced fighting in Argonne Forest (as part of Allied Meuse-Argonne Offensive); pushed Germans back + cut off supply routes • Germans surrender and sign an armistice on Nov. 11, 1918 to end the Great War w/ Allies on German border
The New Technology of Warfare • New military weapons + tactics more deadly (tanks, machine guns, trenches, chemical weapons). Logistics and materials transport gained increased importance. Rise of planes, dreadnought battleships, submarines • Casualties extremely high for war (British lost 1 million, Germany 2 million); even victors overwhelmed by sheer magnitude of deaths
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
FlameThrowers GrenadeLaunchers The Zeppelin
Poison Gas Machine Gun
Government Expansion • Mobilizing an industrial economy for total war required an unprecedented degree of government involvement in industry, agriculture, and other areas.
congress actions Organizing the Economy for War • Financing the war: • Sale of war bonds. • US appropriated $32 billion for war- to raise money sold “Liberty Bonds” to public & put new graduated taxes on income + inheritance • Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion.
Organizing the Economy for War Council of National Defense • To organize economy Wilson created Council of National Defense; but emphasis Civilian Advisory Commission tasked w/ mobilizing at local level • Council of National Defense members urged “scientific management” + centralization, proposed dividing economy based on function and not geography w/ “war boards” coordinating efforts in each sector. • War Industries Board oversaw purchase of military supplies, under Bernard Baruch organized factories, set prices, and distributed needed materials. Instead of restricting profits, govt entered alliance w/ private sector • War Industries Board • Bernard Baruch • Food Administration • Herbert Hoover • Railroad Administration • William McAdoo • National War Labor Board • William Howard Taft
Food Administration Board • Herbert Hoover heads effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output • US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World” • Liberty and victory gardens • Meatless and wheatless days
Results of This New Organization of the Economy Is it a move towards socialism? • Unemployment virtually disappeared. • Expansion of “big government.” • Excessive govt. regulations in eco. • Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions. • Close cooperation between public and private sectors. • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.