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Chapter Objectives
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  1. Chapter Objectives • Male reproductive tract and the function of each part. • Contents and functions of semen. • Roots pertaining to the male reproductive system. • Main disorders of the male reproductive system. • Abbreviations used in referring to the reproductive system. Chapter 14: The Male Reproductive System

  2. Key TermsNormal Structure and Function (cont’d)

  3. Key TermsNormal Structure and Function

  4. Key TermsNormal Structure and Function (cont’d)

  5. Key TermsNormal Structure and Function (cont’d)

  6. Key TermsNormal Structure and Function (cont’d)

  7. Key TermsDisorders

  8. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  9. Key TermsSurgery

  10. Supplementary TermsNormal Structure and Function

  11. Supplementary TermsDisorders

  12. Supplementary TermsDiagnosis and Treatment

  13. Abbreviations

  14. Abbreviations (cont’d)

  15. Roots Pertaining to Male Reproduction

  16. Roots Pertaining to Male Reproduction (cont’d)

  17. Male Reproductive System • Function: • Produce gametes (reproductive cells) • Generated by meiosis • Number of chromosomes cut in half • Fertilization restores chromosome number • Produce hormones • Aid production of gametes • Used in pregnancy and lactation • Regulate secondary sex characteristics

  18. The Testes • Male germ cells (spermatozoa) produced inside • Testes suspended outside body in scrotum • Spermatozoa form within testes starting at puberty • Gonads are stimulated by FSH and LH which are released from the pituitary

  19. Male Genitourinary System

  20. Transport of Spermatozoa • Sperm cells stored in epididymis • Ejaculation propels them out through series of ducts • Vas deferens • Ejaculatory duct • Urethra • Penis • Transports both semen and urine • Enlarged at tip to form glans penis

  21. Formation of Semen • Spermatozoa transported in semen • Thick, whitish fluid containing: • Sperm cells • Secretion from: • Seminal vesicles • Prostrate gland • Bulbourethral (Cowper) glands

  22. Clinical Aspects of the Male Reproductive System • Infections • Most are sexually transmitted • Most common is caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis • Gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Herpes caused by a virus • Non-sexually transmitted • Mumps caused by a virus, infects testes

  23. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia • Prostate gland normally enlarges as men age • Can press on urethra near bladder • Can cause: • Urinary retention • Infection

  24. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (cont’d) • Treatments include: • Medications for relaxing smooth muscle in prostate • Drugs that interfere with testosterone activity • Saw palmetto (herbal remedy) • Prostatectomy (removal of prostate)

  25. Cancer of the Prostate • Most common malignancy in U.S. men • Third leading cause of cancer-related deaths • May metastasize rapidly • Difficult to remove surgically • Possible treatments • Radiation • Measures to reduce androgens (stimulates prostatic growth) • Chemotherapy

  26. Testicular Cancer • Represents less than 1% of cancer in men • Appears between ages 25 and 45 with no signs of genetic inheritance • Treatment: • Removal of testis • Radiation • Chemotherapy

  27. Cryptorchidism • Testes normally descend into scrotum by birth • If not termed cryptorchidism from: • (Crypt/o) hidden • (Orchid/o) testis • May correct itself within first year of life • Must be surgically corrected to avoid: • Sterility • Increased risk of cancer

  28. Cryptorchidism

  29. Infertility • Inability or diminished ability to reproduce • Causes include: • Hereditary • Hormones • Related to disease • Exposure to chemical or physical agents • Sexually transmitted diseases • Total inability to reproduce termed sterility • Voluntary sterility done with vasectomy

  30. Erectile Dysfunction • Also known as impotence • Lack of ability to perform intercourse due to inability to: • Initiate erection • Maintain erection until ejaculation • Causes: • Psychogenic • Physical • Neurogenic • Pharmacological

  31. Erectile Dysfunction (cont’d) • Possible treatments: • Drugs to dilate arteries in penis to increase blood flow • Sildenafil (Viagra) • Penile vacuum pumps • Penile prostheses

  32. Inguinal Hernia • Testes descend through inguinal canal • Canal may represent weakness in abdominal wall • Can lead to hernia • Indirect (external) hernia • Direct (internal) hernia • Strangulated hernia • Treatment • Herniorrhaphy (surgery to correct)

  33. Inguinal Hernia

  34. Pretest The male germ cell, or gamete, is the: (a) ovum (b) testis (c) spermatozoon (d) semen

  35. Pretest The male germ cell, or gamete, is the: (a) ovum (b) testis (c) spermatozoon (d) semen

  36. Pretest • Gametes develop in a gonad, which in males is called the: (a) testis (b) seminal vesicle (c) vas deferens (d) penis

  37. Pretest • Gametes develop in a gonad, which in males is called the: (a) testis (b) seminal vesicle (c) vas deferens (d) penis

  38. Pretest • The main male sex hormone is: (a) estrogen (b) amylase (c) renin (d) testosterone

  39. Pretest • The main male sex hormone is: (a) estrogen (b) amylase (c) renin (d) testosterone

  40. Pretest • The secretion that transports gametes in males is: (a) bile (b) semen (c) urine (d) pepsin

  41. Pretest • The secretion that transports gametes in males is: (a) bile (b) semen (c) urine (d) pepsin

  42. Pretest • The gland below the bladder in males is the: (a) adrenal (b) scrotum (c) submandibular (d) prostate

  43. Pretest • The gland below the bladder in males is the: (a) adrenal (b) scrotum (c) submandibular (d) prostate

  44. Pretest • Protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal body opening is a(n): (a) hernia (b) occlusion (c) stenosis (d) embolus

  45. Pretest • Protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal body opening is a(n): (a) hernia (b) occlusion (c) stenosis (d) embolus

  46. Pretest • Orchitis is inflammation of the: (a) bladder (b) kidney (c) penis (d) testis

  47. Pretest • Orchitis is inflammation of the: (a) bladder (b) kidney (c) penis (d) testis