Floweringplants Cone-bearingplants Ferns andtheir relatives Flowers; SeedsEnclosed in Fruit Mosses andtheir relatives Seeds Water-Conducting(Vascular) Tissue Green algaeancestor A Cladogram of Plant Groups – shows evolutionary relationships of plants
The Diversity of Plants Cone-bearing plants760 species Floweringplants235,000 species Ferns andtheir relatives11,000 species Mosses andtheir relatives15,600 species
Structure of a Leaf - the cuticle protects the leaf against transpiration Cuticle Veins Epidermis Palisademesophyll Xylem Vein Phloem Spongymesophyll Epidermis Stoma Guardcells
Annuals Perennials Biennials 1 growingseason More than2 years 2 years Plants are categorized as that completetheir life cycle in that completetheir life cycle in that completetheir life cycle in
Types of Plants – Seedless • Mosses (Bryophytes) • Ferns (Pterophyta)
Types of Plants - seeds • Cone Bearing (Gymnosperms) • Flowering (Angiosperm)
Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms Comparing Features of Seed Plants Feature Seeds Reproduction Examples Gymnosperms Angiosperms Bear their seeds on cones Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes Bear their seeds within flowers Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Grasses, flowering trees and shrubs, wildflowers, cultivated flowers
Flower Functions • Sexual Reproduction! • Flowers are pollinated by: • Wind • Insects • Birds
FLOWER PARTS • Pistil – female part of the plant • Contains the stigma, style and ovary (surround and protect the seeds)
FLOWER PARTS • Stamen – male part of the plant • Contains the anther and filament
FLOWER PARTS • Petals – colorful, leaflike structures • Sepals – green leaflike structures at the base of the flower
Stamen Carpel Stigma Anther Style Filament Ovary Petal Ovule Sepal The structure of a flower.
Fruit – after pollination the ovary develops a wall of tissue surrounding the seed
Single cotyledon Two cotyledons Parallel veins Branched veins Floral parts often in multiples of 3 Floral parts often in multiplesof 4 or 5 Vascularbundlesscattered throughout stem Vascularbundlesarranged ina ring Fibrous roots Taproot Figure 22–25 Comparison ofMonocots and Dicots Comparison of Monocots and Dicots Monocots Dicots Seeds Leaves Flowers Stems Roots
Transpiration A B Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves. Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.