MOSQUITO, TICK, AND SPIDER BORNE DISEASES Occupational Health and Safety Program
Getting Credit Getting Credit and Certificate it and Certificate • To get full credit and certificate for this class, the class facilitator should do the following: *Present the Power Point Presentation and have all students study any handouts. *Enter the appropriate information into the facility’s training records. *Send the following information by e-mail to the Cabinet’s Safety Coordinator for each student in the class: -name, -work address, -work title, -name of class, -date of class. • Safety Coordinator-Richard T. Owen at Richard.Owen@ky.gov. • The certificates will be returned to the class facilitator for distribution.
Topics • Ticks, Mosquitoes, and Spiders • Common Tick, Mosquito, Spider Borne Diseases • Lyme Disease • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • West Nile Virus • Personal Protection Measures
TICKS - Precautions Deer Tick • Proper Clothing. When entering tick-infested areas, wear long-sleeved shirts and long trousers with tight-fitting cuffs. Wear light-colored clothing. Ticks are easier to see on a light background. • Repellents. Use an insect repellent containing the active ingredient diethyl toluamide (DEET). Apply to clothing and areas of exposed skin such as hands, wrists, ankles and neck. Protect dogs with flea and tick collars. Be sure to read and follow label directions.
Lyme disease Bacteria Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) Ehrlichia Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) Ehrlichia Babesiosis Protozoa Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI)Bacteria Tularemia Bacteria Relapsing fever Bacteria Colorado tick fever Virus Powassan encephalitis Virus Tick paralysis Neurotoxin Common Tick Borne Diseases DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease that often begins with a characteristic rash, and which can later involve the joints, nervous system and/or heart. Most common vector borne disease in the United States.
Lyme Disease • The bacteria that cause Lyme Disease is transmitted by the bite of the Deer Tick. • The tick must be attached for several hours for transmission to occur (usually 24-48 hours). • Lyme disease can be debilitating but is rarely fatal. • Lyme disease is not transmitted person to person.
Lyme Disease • Incubation period is usually 7 to 14 days following tick exposure. • Can be re-infected.
Lyme Disease Symptoms • “Bull’s-Eye” Rash at the site of infection, usually within 1 month. • May appear more like a bruise on dark-skinned individuals. • Flu-Like Symptoms • fatigue • headache • sore/aching muscles & joints • fever • sore throat • swollen glands
Lyme Disease Prevention • Proper wearing of work clothing. • Routine tick checks. • Prompt & Proper tick removal. • Use insect repellant. • If possible, stay out of tick infested areas.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever RMSF is a serious tick-borne disease transmitted by the American Dog Tick and Rock Mountain Wood Tick.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Incubation period: 5 to 10 days. • Rash appears 2 to 5 days after onset of fever. • The majority of RMSF victims must be hospitalized. • Mortality rate is 3 to 5 percent. • RMSF attacks the cells that line the blood vessels. • Damage to the major organs is very possible.
Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverSigns and Symptoms • High Fever • Severe Headache • Nausea • Muscle Pain • Chills • Extreme Exhaustion • Red Spotted Rash • Abdominal Pain • Diarrhea • Joint Pain
Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverSigns and Symptoms RMSF can be a severe illness, and the majority of patients are hospitalized.
Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverPrevention • Wear light colored clothing which allows you to see ticks that are crawling on your clothing. • Tuck pants legs into socks so that ticks cannot crawl up the inside of pant leg. • Apply repellents. • Repellents containing permethrin can be spray on boots and clothing and will last for several days.
Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverPrevention • Repellents containing DEET can be applied to the skin, but will last only few hours before reapplication is necessary. • Conduct a body check upon return from potentially tick infested areas by searching the entire body for ticks. • Remove any tick found on the body.
Tick Removal • Use tweezers to firmly grasp the tick’s mouthparts up against the skin. • Pull back firmly and steadily. • Be patient – the tick’s central mouthpart is covered with sharp barbs, sometimes making removal difficult.
Tick Removal • After removing the tick wash the wound site with soap & water and apply an antiseptic. • Save the tick for future analysis. • You may discard the tick after one month. All known tick-borne diseases generally show up within one month of infection.
Tick Removal DO NOT! • Pull back sharply, as this may tear the mouthparts from the body, leaving them embedded in the skin. • Squeeze or crush the body of the tick because this may force infective body fluids through the mouthparts and into the wound site.
Tick Removal DO NOT! Apply substances such as petroleum jelly, finger nail polish, finger nail polish remover, repellents, pesticides, or a lighted match to the tick while it is attached. These materials are either ineffective, or worse, might agitate the tick and cause it to force more infective fluid into the wound site.
West Nile Virus Year 2002-over 4,000 cases including 284 deaths
West Nile Encephalitis • West Nile Encephalitis is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile Virus. • Encephalitis means swelling of the brain. • Humans get West Nile Virus from infected mosquitoes. • West Nile fatality rate is approximately 15%. • Increased severity in individuals over fifty.
West Nile Encephalitis Symptoms • Fever • Head Ache • Body Aches • Nausea • Disorientation • Paralysis • Coma • Death • Disorientation
West Nile Encephalitis-How it Spreads • Infected Mosquitoes-Most often. • Transfusions, Transplants, and Mother to Child-Very small number. • Not through touching.
West Nile Encephalitis Prevention • Proper wearing of work clothing. Light colored clothing can help you see mosquitoes that land. • Use mosquito repellent on exposed skin and permethrin on clothing. • Mosquitoes are most active at dawn, dusk, & early evening. • Get rid of mosquito breeding sites.
Spiders • Black Widow Spider • Brown Recluse Spider
Spiders Brown Recluse Spider
Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) • One of few spiders in U.S. known to be very harmful to humans. • Regarded by some as more dangerous than the Black Widow Spider because it is considered a house spider and isn’t as simple to identify. • Long, thin gray to dark brown legs covered with very short dark hairs; adults are yellowish-tan to dark brown. • Dark brown or black violin or fiddle on its back with violin’s neck pointing toward the rear of its body.
Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) • Both male and female spiders are similar in appearance and are equally venomous. • Other spiders which have markings that resemble violins-Brown Recluse does not have any markings on its abdomen (tan to brown in color). • Average size of adult is about the size of a quarter.
Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) Location-Prefer warm, dry locations. Inside dressers Behind furniture In showers and bathtubs Garages Underneath furniture Storage sheds In bed sheets of infrequently used beds Attics In stacks of clothes Cellars/basements Behind baseboards Firewood In boxes Near furnaces In closets Near water heaters
Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) Highest concentration of these spiders are in central U.S. (tan area)
Spiders-Brown Recluse Dangers to Humans • One of few spiders that can pierce human skin. • Non-aggressive. • Typically hunt at night. • Most people are bitten by them through accidental contact with areas where they prefer to dwell. • Bite frequently goes unnoticed until the serious after effects start. • Active in temperatures ranging from 45 to 110 degrees F, but can bite at any time of the year in a heated building.
Spiders-Brown Recluse Dangers to Humans Tissue Necrosis (tissue death) • Area may become painful, itchy, hot, swollen, red, and tender. • Irregular ulcerous sore will often appear (bull’s eye pattern). • Prompt attention is best treatment. • If killing tissue, will turn purple and then black. Systemic Symptoms-If gets in bloodstream *Fever *Chills *Sweating *Nausea *Vomiting *Joint Pain *Jaundice *Seizures *Blood in urine *Coma *Kidney failure *Hemolysis
Spiders-Black Widow Identification is based upon the pattern of red coloration on the abdomen underside and geographic distribution. In Kentucky- Southern Black Widow Northern Black Widow
Spiders-Black Widow Location: Indoors-dark garages, basements, stables, out-buildings. Outside-rock crevices, wood piles, overhangs, abandoned rodent holes.
Spiders-Black Widow Southern Northern Anterior Anterior Posterior Posterior
Spiders-Black Widow • Timid spiders, not known to aggressively bite humans. • Only the female has venom. • Venom is a neurotoxin. • After being bitten, may feel painful rigidity in the abdomen muscles and tightness in chest. • Other symptoms-increase blood pressure, rise in body temperature, nausea, and sweating. • Death is uncommon-less than 1% of the reported cases. Seek medical attention if you suspect you have been bitten. Without medical attention, the symptoms can last 5 days and a complete recovery may take weeks.
Personal Protective Measures-Spiders • Watch where you place your hands. • Shake out clothing and shoes before putting them on. • Wear gloves and long sleeved shirts when cleaning out areas (inside/outside), boxes or containers that are usually left undisturbed. • Difficult to kill with most insecticides. Pesticides are usually ineffective unless directly sprayed on the spider. However, even something as simple as water can have the same effect when sprayed directly. • Routine, thorough building cleaning.
Personal Protective Measures-Spiders • Caulk/seal any cracks and crevices in buildings where spiders exist. • Install screens or replace damaged screens as appropriate. • Remove potential breeding places-woodpiles, leaf litter, debris, and rocks. • Seal boxes and storage bags. Keep them away from a wall where possible. • Reduce clutter in basements, attics, and closets.
Personal Protective Measures:Insect Repellents • Use insect repellents that contain DEET with a strength of at least 33%. A stronger concentration is not necessary. • Insect repellent should be reapplied every 4-5 hours due to perspiration and activities that cause it to be rubbed off by contact.
Personal Protective Measures: Permethrin • Spray permethrin aerosol to clothing. DO NOT apply this chemical to clothing while wearing them. • Permethrin is a very strong chemical. DO NOT apply it directly to skin. Permethrin is for clothing only.
Warning! Red Road Bug