ixodidae ticks tick borne diseases n.
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Ixodidae Ticks & Tick-borne Diseases. Michael Lehrke. Ixodidae Ticks. Ixodidae ticks are hard ticks Taxonomy: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Arachnida (Eight legs) Subclass: Acari (Ticks & Mites) Superorder: Parasitiformes (Parasitic ticks) Order: Ixodida

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ixodidae ticks
Ixodidae Ticks
  • Ixodidae ticks are hard ticks
  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
      • Phylum: Arthropoda
        • Class: Arachnida (Eight legs)
          • Subclass: Acari (Ticks & Mites)
            • Superorder: Parasitiformes (Parasitic ticks)
              • Order: Ixodida
                • Family Ixodidae (Hard ticks)
  • 702 species in 14 genera
notable species
Notable Species
  • Amblyomma americanum
    • The lone star tick
  • Dermacentor andersoni
    • Wood tick
  • Dermacentor variabilis
    • American dog tick
  • Ixodes scapularis (Ixodes dammini)
    • Black-legged deer tick
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    • Brown dog tick
general morphology
General Morphology
  • Hard scutum or shield, on females it is partial on males it is full
  • A capitulum (mouth parts) that projects from the body
    • Opposed to soft ticks in which the head is beneath the body
a americanum morphology
A. americanum Morphology
  • Red-brown color, females have white spot posterior to scutum, males have more than one spot around body
  • Mouth parts are particularly long
  • Festoons are present
dermacentor morphology
Dermacentor Morphology
  • Females have a white scutum and brown body, males are brown with white markings (D. variabilis has more white)
  • Eleven festoons
  • Basis capituli is straight
  • Coxae get larger from anterior to posterior
i scapularis morphology
I. scapularis Morphology
  • They have reddish bodies with black scutum, males are usually mostly black
  • Lack of festoons
  • Have anal groove on ventral side, anterior to the anus
  • Adults are “1/2 sesame” sized and nymphs are “poppy seed” sized
r sanguineus morphology
R. sanguineus Morphology
  • Brown abdomen and scutum
  • Festoons present
  • Hexagonal basis capituli
  • Coxae remain same size
amblyomma americanum
Amblyomma americanum
  • Definitive hosts: Cats, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, rodents, primates
  • Intermediate hosts: Cats, rodents, rabbits
  • It is a three-host tick
  • Southern US and Mexico
dermacentor andersoni
Dermacentor andersoni
  • Definitive hosts: Dogs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, primates, raccoons
  • Intermediate hosts: Rodents, rabbits
  • It is a three-host tick
  • Western North America

and Canada

dermacentor variabilis
Dermacentor variabilis
  • Definitive hosts: Dogs, cats, cattle, rodents, primates, raccoons
  • Intermediate hosts: Rabbits
  • It is a three-host tick
  • Central and Eastern US
ixodes scapularis
Ixodes scapularis
  • Definitive hosts: Dogs, cats, cattle, rodents, horses, pigs, rabbits, birds, primates
  • Intermediate hosts: Rabbits, rodents, snakes/turtles
  • It is a three-host tick
  • Central, Midwest and

Eastern US

rhipicephalus sanguineus
Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  • Definitive hosts: Dogs, rodents, rabbits, primates
  • Intermediate hosts: Dogs, rodents, rabbits
  • It is a three-host tick
  • Entire US (your dog is

not safe!!)

life cycle
Life Cycle
  • Three host tick: feeds on three hosts during life cycle
    • Can be all different or the same individual
  • Molt in between feedings
  • Usually winter before each feeding and after molting
  • Progress from Egg -> Larvae -> Nymph -> Adult
    • Larvae, aka rebels, have 6 legs (nymphs keep it real with 8 again)
  • Usually asymptomatic, like a normal insect bite
    • Tick cuts into skin (can take 10 min to 2 hours to prepare), inserts feeding tube, and secrete anesthetic saliva! (Sucks, literally)
  • Dermacentor and Ixodes have been implicated with tick paralysis
    • Acute, ascending, flaccid motor paralysis, can result in death
    • Thought to be caused by toxins
  • Ticks can transmit diseases!
treatment control
  • Remove the tick, duh
    • DO NOT use ointments/Vaseline or heat, ticks vomit, possibly forcing pathogens into you!
  • Avoid tick infested areas
  • Repellent (DEET)
tick borne diseases
Tick-borne Diseases
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Babesiosis
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Lyme disease
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Formerly human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HE), now referred to human granulocytic anaplasmosis
  • Caused by bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis
  • Symptoms include fever, headache,

chills, muscle aches usually

1-2 weeks after bite

  • Diagnosed on symptoms and

can be confirmed by lab tests,

treated with doxycycline

  • Caused by blood parasite Babesia microti, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis
  • Usually asymptomatic, can cause flu-like symptoms, dangerous to immunocompromised people
  • Diagnosed with blood smears, visualizing “Maltese-cross” formations, treated, usually clears itself or can be treated with drug combinations
  • Caused by Ehrlichia species of bacteria, transmitted by lone-star tick
  • Flu-like symptoms, malaise, confusion, rash, red eyes
  • Diagnosed on clinical signs and lab tests, treated with doxycycline
rocky mountain spotted fever
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsi, transmitted by Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor andersoni, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  • Flu-like symptoms, spotted rash, can be deadly if not treated
  • Suspicion, blood tests, platelet count, treated with doxycycline
lyme disease
Lyme Disease
  • NOT “Lyme’s Disease” – Named after
  • Caused by the spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis
  • Acute: Flu-like symptoms, erythema migrans (bull’s-eye rash), Bell’s palsy, joint pain, fatigue
  • Chronic: Arthritis, neurological issues, persistent fatigue
  • Post-treatment: fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive defects, joint problems
lyme disease1
Lyme Disease
  • Diagnosed with blood tests (after several weeks), treated with doxycycline, Ceftin, or amoxicillin
lyme disease2
Lyme Disease
  • Prevalent on the East Coast and in the Midwest (particularly around this area and Wisconsin)
  • Prevalence is dramatically climbing
    • In 2000 MN had 465 cases, in 2010 that rose to 1293 (270% increase)!
    • In 2000 WI had 631 cases, which rose to 2505 in 2010 (400% increase)!
  • These diseases can be prevented by avoiding ticks, using repellents (DEET), and promptly removing ticks