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The Three Gulf Wars. The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 The Expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait The Regime Change. Before the Iran-Iraq War. In the years after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War Iran, under the Shah, was a US ally while Iraq was in the Soviet camp Iran kept an eye on the USSR & OPEC

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the three gulf wars

The Three Gulf Wars

The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988

The Expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait

The Regime Change

before the iran iraq war
Before the Iran-Iraq War
  • In the years after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War Iran, under the Shah, was a US ally while Iraq was in the Soviet camp
    • Iran kept an eye on the USSR & OPEC
    • Iraq bought arms from the USSR
  • Major changes in 1979
    • Saddam Hussein & the Ayatollah Khomeini gained power in Iraq & Iran, respectively
    • The Soviet army rolled into Afghanistan
the iran iraq war 1980 1988
The Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988
  • In 1980, Iraq broke the Baghdad Pact, invading Iran, expecting an easy victory, finding more resistance than expected
  • In 1981, Israel bombed an Iraqi nuclear plant
  • In 1984, the USA, fearing victory by Iran, renewed diplomatic relations with Iraq
  • The USA armed & trained the Iraqi army
  • Finally, stalemate in 1988
impact on saddam of us aid
Impact on Saddam of US Aid
  • Transformed Saddam into a much stronger, even more ruthless leader
  • Baathist power solidified, cult of the personality strengthened
  • The US had a hard time convincing Saddam to engage Iran in the final battles that secured a draw—and a ceasefire
  • In short, we contributed enormously to the creation of a nightmare
us focus remained on iran
US Focus Remained on Iran
  • After the Iran-Iraq War, the US continued to focus on Iran rather than Iraq
  • Despite Saddam’s massacre of 5000 in Halabja 3/17/88
  • Despite growing power of moderates in Iran
  • Operation Stanch: stop the flow of Iran
    • Around the Gulf to the other oil countries
    • Toward Israel
status of kuwait
Status of Kuwait
  • 1899 agreement with Britain
  • 1913 boundary with Iraq defined by Anglo-Turkish Convention
  • 1938 oil discovered
  • 1976 government assumes control over oil
  • Monarchy with several levels of “citizenship”
  • Tight economic controls
  • 1990 April Glaspie: The US has no interest in Iraq’s claim that Kuwait is part of Iraq
iraqi invasion of kuwait
Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
  • Great celebrations among some Arabs, but not the other oil-producing countries
  • Fear over the safety of Israel
  • Fear over the global supply of petroleum
  • Commitment to reverse a clear violation of international law
  • Unanimous Security Council support for forcing Iraq out of Kuwait
desert shield to desert storm
Desert Shield to Desert Storm
  • In the fall of 1990 a global force gathered to quarantine Iraq and if necessary evict Iraq from Kuwait
  • Iraq essentially capitulated but with considerable casualties, retreating
  • Allied forces stopped short of Baghdad, having achieved their official objectives
  • Security Council extracts acquiescence from Iraq, imposing sanctions until conditions met
iraqi uprisings
Iraqi Uprisings
  • Global forces encouraged Iraqi uprisings
  • Kurds rose up in the north, Shia Arabs in the south but not supported externally
  • No fly zones established
  • Sanctions imposed
  • Food for oil program initiated
  • Saddam remained deeply entrenched
  • Civilians suffered miserably
meanwhile in afghanistan
Meanwhile in Afghanistan . . .
  • Tradition of fiercely guarded independence
  • A pro-Soviet government, facing serious resistance, “invited” the USSR to provide military assistance
  • The USSR rolled into Afghanistan late in December of 1979
  • Resistance was serious
  • Resistance was aided by the US
  • Pakistan cooperated
emergence of the taliban
Emergence of the Taliban
  • 2 million Afghan refugees, mainly in Pakistan
  • Madrassas (Islamic schools) funded by the Saudis in refugee camps
  • The Taliban (students) became a major military force, eventually controlling most of the country
  • Al Qaeda emerged as a military force against the USSR, worked with the Taliban
  • Repressive regime with a puritanical interpretation of Islam, oppression of women
emergence of al qaeda
Emergence of Al Qaeda
  • Well funded, well armed, led by a charismatic leader, Al Qaeda became a major force for change for disaffected Muslims, particularly Saudis
  • Goals
    • End to sanctions against Iraq
    • USA out of Saudi Arabia
    • End of US support for the Saudi royal family
al qaeda operations
Al Qaeda Operations
  • Willing to use violent means to punish the US and other enemies
    • 1993 truck explosion in the basement of the World Trade Center
    • 1998 attacks on US embassies in East Africa
    • Many attacks against India
    • The 9/11 attack
requirements for a just war
Requirements for a Just War
  • Just cause
  • Right intention
  • Proper authority & public declaration
  • Last resort
  • Probability of success
  • Proportionality
  • Just peace
war against the taliban
War against the Taliban
  • Given support of Al Qaeda, a just cause
  • If the intention was to remove Al Qaeda & establish just rule, the intention was just
  • Unprovoked attack provided the moral authority
  • Last resort?
  • Virtually certain success at removing the Taliban
  • Proportional to the attack on the US
  • Follow through with a just peace? Not yet
the third gulf war
The Third Gulf War
  • New principle in International Law
    • Pre-emptive War: The Bush Doctrine
  • Bush, Blair justification for attacking Iraq
    • Implicated in The Attack on America
    • Imminent threat to the region & world
    • Need to free the people of Iraq
  • Opposition to the rush to war
    • Unwillingness to wait to gain UN support
    • Opening Pandora’s Box
is the 3 rd gulf war just
Is the 3rd Gulf War Just?
  • Just Cause
    • Not part of the attack on America, not an imminent threat, certainly a vile regime
  • Right Intention
    • Why concentrate on Saddam when bin Laden is still loose? What if any part does oil play?
  • Proper Authority
    • Undercut international law by impatience with UN
justice of the 3 rd gulf war cont
Justice of the 3rd Gulf War (cont)
  • Last Resort
    • What was the big hurry?
  • Probability of Success
    • Removing Saddam was the easy part
    • Establishing rule of law is more difficult
  • Proportionality
    • Compared to other tyrants?
  • Just Peace
just peace for the middle east
Just Peace for the Middle East
  • Given our willingness to go to war to change the Iraqi regime, we have an opportunity to change the facts on the ground
  • If we could establish a genuinely democratic government we could change the region
  • How many countries should there be in Iraq?
  • How can security & justice be provided?
  • Are we in more or less jeopardy?
  • How will our actions now affect our jeopardy?