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Nanotechnology: Next Big Wave For MSME Technology Proceeds in Waves Electrical inventions dominated the later parts of 19 th century Petrol based vehicles in first half of 20 th century Nuclear energy around middle of 20 th century Personal computers since 1980

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Technology Proceeds in Waves

Electrical inventions dominated the later parts of 19th century

Petrol based vehicles in first half of 20th century

Nuclear energy around middle of 20th century

Personal computers since 1980

Mobile and Internet since 1995 in India

At present we are in Information Technology era

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Future will be dominated by three sisters: one older and two younger twins

Names of three sisters are Info, Nano, Bio

Right now is the time, neither too early nor too late, to get started with nanotechnology business in India

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Nanotechnology

is technology at the sub-micron level

Milli is one thousandth

Micro is one millionth

Nano is one billionth

At the nano level we are speaking in terms of large single molecules or a group of a few dozen atoms.

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Not only is the nano level very small, but the properties of matter at the nano level are quite different from the macroscopic level.

This is because surface properties become most important.

Mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties of nano-materials are very different compared to their bulk counterparts.

Until micro level, laws of classical physics are good enough, but at nano level, quantum physics only can explain phenomena.

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For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper)

Inert materials become catalysts (gold, platinum)

Stable materials turn combustible (aluminum)

Solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold)

Insulators become conductors (silicon).

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Building blocks of nanotechnology are nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms

Nanoparticles have nano dimensions in all three directions

Nanowires have nano dimensions in two directions and one direction is of larger size

Nanofilms have nano dimensions in one direction only and two directions are of larger size.

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Si(557)-Au surface

uw.physics.wisc.edu/~himpsel/wires.html

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Although all three structures have been studied, most of applications so far are those of nanoparticles.

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Nanotechnology in History and Nature

Swords manufactured in Damascus from 10th century to as late as 1750 have been found to contain carbon nanotubes (strongest and stiffest material known).

The sword makers knew nothing about nano-science but were accidentally utilizing nanotechnology.

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Nanomaterials are not difficult to produce but their characterization is hard.

Nanotechnology has already existed in nature and we need to do a lot of biomimetics.

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Bacillus sphaericus with center-to-center spacing of 13.1 nm.

www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p16.html

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Geckos cling to smooth surfaces when upside down because of capillary and van der Waals forces between the surface and densely packed 200-nm-wide keratin hairs on the soles of their feet (left).

Fibers patterned with electron beam lithography from a plastic film (right) achieved an adhesion almost 30% as good.

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Available Nanotechnology Products

Nanoparticles

Appliances

Automotive

Building Products

Cosmetics

Electronics and Computer

Food

Green Nanotechnology

Hobby and Sports

Home and Garden

Industrial Nanotechnology Products

Marine Products and Applications

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Medical and Health

Paper and Packaging Industry

Scientific Instruments

Textile and Fabrics

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Nanotechnology could also have immense applications in construction but this will have to wait since bulk quantities are needed and nanomaterials are still very expensive.

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Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory

(http://www.nanotechproject.org/44)

USA

1,000+ manufactured products

485 companies

24 countries (including China, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand, but not India)

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World-wide, Nanotechnology R&D funding by private sector has started to exceed funding by governments.

Nanotechnology is projected to become a $1 trillion market by 2015.

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485 manufacturers and 1000+ products means there is plenty of room for retail and small players.

Many of new nanotechnology products are passive and not active A passive product does not need after-sales service.

Small and medium players can enter into business with passive products.

This is very different from the scenario when IT took off. IT manufacturing was dominated by a small number of manufacturers.

On other hand IT had great scope for trainers which were essentiall small players.

In nanotechnology scope for training is far less

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NANOTECHNOLOGY AND INDIA

Research Labs: OK

Government Research Funding: OK

Teaching: OK

Business: Not OK (1) So far Indian business has been mesmerized by Information Technology. (2) Nanotechnology entrepreneurship courses not yet included in M.Tech. (Nanotechnology) degree programmes (3) Nanotechnology regulatory framework does not exist

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Delhi Nanotechnology Business Group is a forum of like-minded persons to interact with one another.

Our website is http://nanotech.meetup.com/62.

Membership of the web-site is free.

We have about 60 members.

Meetings are being held.

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Early business ideas for Indian Nano-entrepreneurs

  • Nanotechnology instrumentation
  • Nanotechnology consultancy
  • Nanoparticle supply
slide29

Nanocity

http://www.nanocity.com

Nanocity spans 11138 acres of flatland located less than 25 kms east of Chandigarh.

It is a public/private partnership between Sabeer Bhatia (52%) Parvsnath Developers (38%) and Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) (12%).

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Similar projects have been announced in Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat in collaboration with Nanobiosym of USA whose founder is an NRI by name Anita Goyal.

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Business Models

A purely import-based business can be set up for an amount starting from Rupees 10 lakh.

For one to a few crores, one can set up a business based on import plus value addition.

Fifty crores and above would be needed to start any kind of a nanotechnology manufacturing business.

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Hundreds of crores and above would be needed to set up a business involving the manufacture of "active" nanotechnology products which would also need the establishment of a network of after-sales service centres.

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Re-engineering of engineers would be needed through appropriate short courses.

At present dozens of universities in India have started degree programs in nanotechnology.

Similarly a good number of conferences are also being held.

However, nanotechnology short courses are yet to take off.

Emergent Technologies short courses would include nanotechnology as a major component.

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Choice of Product for small players:

It should be passive product (not requiring service backup) versus active product.

It’s potential market should be big but the number of consumers should be small.

Therefore institutional consumers are to be preferred over general public consumers.

The product should be small in price.

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Start with nanoparticles

Market of these products will be to educational institutions, research labs, and companies

Carbon Nanotubes

Nanofibres

Silver and metal oxides

Titanium oxides

Other Nanoparticles

Nanocoatings

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Sole Proprietorship versus Partnership versus Private Limited Company versus Public Limited Company

Sole proprietorship model is out since both funds and expertise needed.

Basic choice is between Partnership and Private Limited Company.

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Superficially partnerships laws seem simple. Companies laws seem more complex.

Individual partnerships are controlled by the details of agreement. This makes it complex. In case of companies everything is laid out in the laws.

Partnerships are suited for a well-knit group of friends or relatives for there is a great deal of mutual trust.

Companies are suited to those who do not know each other for a very long time.

Company documents are more subject to public scrutiny than partnership documents.

Company is easy to upgrade from private limited to public limited through IPO

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For Small Players

We need a model for establishing business with about 10 lakh initial funds.

This would be based on import and marketing.

Have 12 shares. Organizing AGM of 12 persons will be easy.

15 is the maximum number of directors allowed in a company but there should be 3 independent directors.

In this model each share-holder also becomes a director of the company.

Hopefully the number of shareholders buying the 12 shares will be much less.

If value of each share is Rs. 80,000 then Rs. 10 lakh will be collected.

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The profit of the company is to shared in proportion to the number of share.

The Directors of the company get a payment for each meeting they attend.

Initially the Board of Directors may forego any payment until the company comes into profit.

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Employees:

Start with only one employee. Employee should have some marketing experience and preferably some import experience.

The Board of Directors would identify the product(s) to be imported.

The employee would get the import quotations, get government sanctions for import, publicize the work of the company, keep all accounts, and report to the Board of Directors.

In the beginning the employees does not need an office. But he is to be given travel allowance.

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Warning on misuse of word Nano

Tata Nano is an example

Even poets have started to use the word nano:

Ye suntay hain teri nano-kamar hai

Kahaan hai, kis taraf hai, aur kidhar hai