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Structural Diagrams: Framing (Non-concrete/ non-metal) Referenced Materials Jeff Graybill & Johanna Mikitka AE-390 Professor James E. Mitchell October 20, 2004 Navigate the System: System Description Transmission of Loads Loads to Consider Detail for Dead Loads Foundation Systems

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structural diagrams framing non concrete non metal

Structural Diagrams:Framing(Non-concrete/ non-metal)

Referenced Materials

Jeff Graybill

&

Johanna Mikitka

AE-390

Professor James E. Mitchell

October 20, 2004

navigate the system
Navigate the System:
  • System Description
    • Transmission of Loads
    • Loads to Consider
      • Detail for Dead Loads
    • Foundation Systems
  • Terms of the System
    • The System According to the class & Comments
  • Typical Uses
  • Limitations
  • Materials and Construction Issues
  • Numeric Parameters
  • Alternatives to Timber Construction
    • Typical Uses and Applications
    • Aluminum Structural Framing
    • Aluminum / Fiberglass Columns
    • Other Potential Alternative Building Materials
    • Advantages to Non- metal/concrete Structures
  • Generalizations

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system description
System Description

A Framed Building is a structure whose weight is carried by the framework instead of by load-bearing walls. The term includes modern metal and reinforced concrete structures as well as timber-framed buildings.

There are several techniques for wood framed constructions:

  • Balloon Framing- A skeleton of light machine-cut uprights or studs is attached to the joints or horizontal members by nails to form a cage or crate, with clapboard covering also nailed so that the whole is held together by nails. The studs run from sill to roof plate, spaced about 16 inches apart.
  • Post and Beam- An ancient and, structurally, the simplest type of construction: vertical members (columns, posts, piers, or walls) support horizontal members (beams or lintels).
  • Platform Framing- see Balloon Framing (Platform framing differs from balloon framing in that the vertical members run from platform to platform rather than from sill to roof plate.)
  • Half-timbering- A method of construction in which walls are built of interlocking vertical and horizontal timbers. The spaces are filled with non-structural walling of wattle and daub, lath and plaster, etc.

What about the loads?!

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All definitions taken from The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.

transmission of loads
Transmission of Loads

TRIBUTARY AREA

LOADS

BEAMS

BEAMS

BEAMS

GIRDERS

GIRDERS

GIRDERS

COLUMNS

COLUMNS

COLUMNS

FOUNDATION SYSTEM

THEY MADE IT! THE LOADS HAVE REACHED THE GROUND!

What loads must be considered in building design?

What types of foundations systems are available?

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loads to consider
Loads to Consider
  • Dead Loads:

“Dead loads consist of the weights of the various structural members and the weights of any objects that are permanently attached to the structure.” (Hibbeler)

  • Live Loads:
    • Building Loads
    • Wind Loads
    • Snow Loads
    • Earthquake Loads
    • Other Loads:
      • Blast Loads
      • Variance in temperatures
      • Uneven settling of soil

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dead load design loads
Dead Load - Design Loads

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Contents of Table from Hibbeler - based on Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-98.

foundation systems
Foundation Systems

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Graphic: http://www.slcc.edu/tech/techsp/arch/courses/ARCH1210/Photos/Fndtyp.jpg

terms of the system
Terms of the System

1. Posts - In timber-framed buildings the main vertical timbers of the walls.

2. Girder - A box girder is of hollow rectangular or other closed cross-section with transverse plates or other diaphragm members at intervals for strengthening.

3. Principal Beam - In the body of a building a main horizontal timber supporting floor or ceiling joists.

4. Joist - Horizontal parallel timbers laid between the walls or the beams of a building to carry the floorboards.

5. King Post - A vertical timber standing centrally on a tie- or a collar-beam and rising to the apex of the roof where it supports the ridge.

6. Rafter - Inclined lateral timbers sloping from wall-top to apex and supporting the roof covering.

7. Ridge Beam - A horizontal, longitudinal timber at the apex of a roof supporting the ends of the rafters.

5

7

6

4

3

2

1

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All definitions taken from The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.

Graphic from Ching.

in terms of the class
In terms of the Class
  • Class Definition of a System -"A series of individual components interacting in order to ensure that a design functions as desired.”
  • In wood framing, the individual components are the different types of timbers explained in Terms of the System.
  • Subsystems of wood framing include the following:
    • Foundation - needed to support the structure
    • Walls - often fabricated and installed as single components
    • Roof - many roof options are available (due to complexity of these systems, no detail has been provided). Roof constructions include crown-post, king-post, truss, gable, hammerbeam, hipped, gambrel, mansard, helm, etc.
    • Joint systems - there are many techniques for connecting the timber members. Some techniques include mortice and tenon joints, steel plate connections, bolts, nails, screws, etc.
  • The desired function for a wood frame is to adequately meet the spatial and aesthetic needs as well as be structurally adequate to handle all potential loads.

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typical uses for wood framing
Typical Uses for Wood Framing
  • Residential Construction
    • This is the most common use
    • Timber can be used to create many aesthetically pleasing irregular shapes
    • Economic/convenient source of building materials
    • Durable for residential use
    • Ease/speed of construction
  • Small Commercial Buildings
    • Many small commercial buildings are similar to residential construction
    • Modular quality is advantageous
  • Barns
    • Ease/speed of construction
    • Simplicity & Durability of structure
    • Modular benefits
  • Camp/Park facilities
    • Aesthetically pleasing/appropriate for location
    • Ease/speed of construction

Graphic: http://www.iaw.on.ca/~blkcreek/

Click here for some outstanding examples of the use of exposed timber framing systems!

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limitations
Limitations
  • Natural Size limitations
    • Because the timbers come from trees, sizes are naturally limited by the trees available.
    • The natural strength to resist loading of the timbers limits the span.
  • Does not accommodate large open spaces
    • The framing concept does not allow for large open spaces as the posts are a necessary aspect of the frame. Beam spans range from 8’ to 32’.
  • Wood is organic matter and is therefore subject to decomposition over a period of time.
  • Wood may absorb/lose water content causing warping and deformation in the system over time.
  • Wood is subject to infestations of destructive insects such as termites, carpenter ants, etc.

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materials and construction issues
Typical Strong Woods:

Douglas Fir

Larch

Southern Pine

Oak

Many types of wood & uses

Connections:

Metal Connectors

Shear Plate Connections

Spike Grid Connections

Toothed-ring Joints

Bolts, screws, nails, etc.

Wood on Wood Connections

Mortice and Tenon

Lap Joint

Spline

Materials and Construction Issues
  • Fabrication
    • On-Site Fabrication
      • Allows for irregular shape construction
    • Off-Site Fabrication
      • Allows for high-speed construction as members only need to be pieced together
      • Beneficial for modular installation

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shear plate connector
Shear-Plate Connector
  • Shear plates are typical for wood-steel connections.
  • Pairs of sheer plates can be used to form wood-wood connections.

http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/14070_27.htm

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spike grid connector
Spike Grid Connector
  • Spike Grid connectors are embedded into the wood members before they are bolted together to provide a source of friction to prevent shearing of the bolts.

http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/14070_27.htm

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toothed ring joints
Toothed-ring Joints
  • Toothed-ring Joints are used similarly to the spike grid installation.

http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/14070_27.htm

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numeric parameters
Numeric Parameters
  • Nominal Depth of Beam vs. Span (Solid)
  • Depth of Beam vs. Span (Laminated)
  • Design Values: Bending, Tension, Shear, Compression, and Modulus of Elasticity
  • How much does it weigh?

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nominal depth vs span
Nominal Depth vs. Span
  • This chart shows span ranges based on the nominal depth of the wood beam selected.
  • Nominal depths are slightly larger than actual depths.
  • Note that with a 24” beam depth maximum span is only 32’.

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depth vs span laminated beams
Depth vs. SpanLaminated Beams
  • This chart shows span ranges based on the depth of the laminated wood beam selected.
  • Laminated beams can span greater distances that their solid wood counterparts. This is in part because their size is not restricted by nature.
  • Note that Span is in feet and depth is in inches.

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design values allowable loadings
Design Values - Allowable Loadings
  • S-P-F Design Values (psi)
  • Douglas Fir- Larch Design Values (psi)
  • Hem-Fir (North) Design Values (psi)
  • Northern Species Design Values (psi)

These tables will help you to decide what size and what type of wood is necessary based on loading factors such as bending, tension, shear, and compression.

Design loadings are given for specified types and grades of timbers. Loadings are presented in pounds per square inch.

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s p f design values psi
S-P-F Design Values (psi)

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http://www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded/us_values.php

douglas fir larch design values psi
Douglas Fir- LarchDesign Values (psi)

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http://www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded/us_values.php

hem fir design values psi
Hem-Fir Design Values (psi)

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http://www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded/us_values.php

northern species design values psi
Northern SpeciesDesign Values (psi)

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http://www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded/us_values.php

wood densities for design loads
Wood Densities for Design Loads
  • One of the primary components of the Dead Load calculation is the weights of the structural members. The densities allow the engineer to calculate the weight added by the timber members.

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alternatives to timber construction
Alternatives to timber construction
  • Although not used as widely as timber, concrete, and steel construction materials, lightweight and durable materials are being used for the more decorative structural elements.
  • These materials include aluminum, structural foam, plastics, and fiberglass.

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typical uses and applications
Typical uses and applications
  • Commercial:
    • Walkway Canopies
    • Shade Structures
    • Metal Roofing
  • Residential:
    • Lattice
    • Pool Enclosures
    • Sunrooms
    • Carports

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aluminum structural framing
Aluminum Structural Framing
  • Aluminum framing has advantages in high insulating value, diffuse-light transmitting swimming pool enclosures. Typical ferro-vitreous buildings utilize 2 3/4" structural roof panel systems providing good insulating values, energy performance, human comfort and condensation control. The panels are incorporated into an aluminum box beam sub-structure resulting in an enclosure that is designed to meet or exceed all local snow and wind load requirements - from Canadian snowstorms to Caribbean hurricanes.
  • Aluminum Structural Framing comes factory pre-finished, uses a hollow box-beam design allowing easy wire and conduit concealment, typically will use internal gussets, traditional truss designs, and can be used in a variety of roof styles.

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aluminum fiberglass columns
Aluminum/Fiberglass Columns
  • The columns are designed for all types of decorative and load bearing installations and are architecturally correct in their proportions and projections. Fiber-glass columns require very little maintenance, are durable and are ideal for indoor or outdoor applications.
  • All components are non-porous, waterproof, and impervious to insect infestation. The fiberglass columns are classified as NFPA Class A and UBC Class 1, with a smoke density rating below 450 according to ASTM E84-01 testing criteria.
  • Structural fiberglass columns are load bearing and will typically have some sort of warranty. They can vary in diameters from 5 to 36 inches with a load-bearing capacity from 16,000 to 31,000 lbs., and can be found in lengths ranging from 8 to 30 feet.
  • Extruded Aluminum sections have high resistance to torsional stress and compression. Aluminum’s properties give the columns excellent load bearing strength and durability. Since Aluminum is also light weight it aids in the ease of installation. Aluminum and Fiberglass also have a longer usable lifetime than wooden members.

www.colonialcolumns.com

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other specific uses
Other specific uses
  • Aluminum is used in architectural skylights which are held using space frames due to its lightweight and strong material properties.
  • Aluminum is also used in prefabricated dome structures typically used on religious or institutional buildings.
  • Alternative materials are also now used in pedestrian bridges and serve as low maintenance crossways for traffic ranging from horses and pedestrians to golf carts. These bridges are environmentally friendly and meet state and federal codes. These materials are used on a smaller scale presently but show potential use on large scale bridges in the future.
  • These alternative construction materials are typically used in the decorative elements of buildings, but are being accepted as load bearing materials due to their weight, strength, cost effective manufacturing, and modular abilities.
  • Roofs can utilize aluminum not only in framing but can replace shingles and traditional roofing products. And, many insurance companies in select states are now offering discounts on homes with metal roofs as an incentive.

www.roofdomes.com

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other potential alternative building materials
Other Potential Alternative Building Materials
  • Plastics:
    • Bottles/containers
    • Automotive
    • Furniture, etc.
  • Epoxy Resin members:
    • Bicycle/automotive parts
    • Other sports equipment
  • Structural Foam:
    • Pool walls
    • Automotive parts
    • Computer housings
    • Furniture
    • Industrial Containers

www.specialized.com

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advantages to non metal and concrete structures
Advantages to Non-metal and Concrete Structures
  • Great design flexibility
  • Modular, pre-fabricated, ease of manufacturing
  • High strength to weight ratio
  • Electrical/thermal insulating properties
  • Potentially longer lifespan
  • Cost effective
  • Ease of installation
  • Comparably Aesthetic to other traditional materials

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generalization
Generalization:
  • Wood framing is ideal for residential construction and some commercial construction.
  • One of the best aspects to wood framing is the modular concept. This allows you to expand with great ease.
  • For further exploration, one could investigate the combination of the systems presented by the class in this project. More advanced structures may need to use more than one structural concept act as a system and perform the desired functions.

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references
References:
  • Allen, E., Iano, J. The Architect’s Studio Companion - Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2002
  • Ching, Francis. A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997
  • Fleming, J., Honour, H., & Pevsner, N. The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 5th ed. New York: Penguin. 1999
  • http://www.slcc.edu/tech/techsp/arch/courses/ARCH1210/Photos/Fndtyp.jpg

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