non indigenous invasive species n.
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  1. NON INDIGENOUS INVASIVE SPECIES Beauty is a Potential Beast!

  2. What’s invasive? • Invasive=plant that decreases diversity ; homogenizing plant community, cause local extinctions which are cumulative over a long period especially in small or highly sensitive community.

  3. Statistics from Hell • Invasive exotic species=non-native species that invade and alter natural and managed areas • Cover 100 million acres, increase 8-20% annually=2x Delaware • lose 4,600 acres of public rec areas per day to invasives • 42% of declines of threatened and endangered species partly due to effects of invasives • why aren’t native plants ever considered invasive? ---natural succession

  4. Native vs. Non-native • Are native invasives, but don’t tolerate competiton as well, eg poison ivy doesn’t do so well in shade compared to other natives that have edge • Natural selection keeps in them in check---don’t tolerate competition, and have natural pred., path, and competitors that intro’d plants do not • in New England, 3% of documented plants are non-native AND invasive, but still have potential to seriously damage plant communities

  5. Where Do They Come From? • Does happen occasionally, e.g., spartina to CA and black locust, poison ivy, hay-scented fern, greenbrier • Asian plants may be esp. bad here because of similar climate but not natural enemies • 50% of problem species brought in to beautify gardens • useful invasives planted by DOT and other agencies part of the problem • problem longstanding, 1735, bloody non-natives such as lilacs and double narcissus; many of modern invasives estab s ornamentals in early part of 20th century • loosestride, jap honeysuckle flagged as invasives in 1938

  6. Black locust Black swallow-wort Buckthorn Common reed Curly pondweed Ornamental olives European water milfoil Garlic mustard Shrub honeysuckles Japanese barberry Japanese honeysuckle Japanese knotweed Japanese stiltgrass Multiflora rose Norway maple Oriental bittersweet Porcelain berry Purple loostrife Spotted knapweed Water chestnut Top Twenty Invasive Plants in NYS

  7. More Invasive Plants on LI • Lesser celandine • Golden bamboo • Silver fleece vine • Miscanthus • Kudzu (yes, on LI) • Mugwort • Tree of heaven • Wisteria • Five leaf akebia

  8. Impact of Invasive Plants on Insects and Birds • Birds can’t eat all insects, insects can’t eat all plants • Eg, insects consume 239 sq cm of black oak vs. 12 sq. cm of Norway maple • A shortage of insect protein can affect second generation of birds, and repro • native bird pops are in decline: is it just habitat loss or is it an impact of invasive plants on food chain • Junk food for insects=multiflora rose, oriental bittersweet, Japanese honeysuckle, autumn olive, garlic mustard, Norway maple

  9. Invasive traits • ABUNDANT fruits, seeds: honeysuckle, autumn olive, multiflora rose, purple loosestrife, oriental bittersweet; birds disperse, especially buckthorn which produces fruits from summer through late fall; garlic mustard doesn’t produce that many seeds but seedling survival rate is incredible • EFFECTIVE, VARIED dispersal methods: BIRDS #1, wind #2, e.g., Norway maple (wind from passing cars), mechanical means (exploding seed pods), or multiple methods (loosestrife), bits of root that float down stream such as Japanese knotweed, human vectors either through soil or water gardening

  10. Invasive traits • INTENTIONAL INTRODUCTION OR ESTAB: Japanese barberry, multiflora rose, purple loosestrife, oriental bittersweet, water chestnut • EASY, RAPID ESTAB: garlic mustard (white tailed deer?), ground disturbance (phragmites), wind throw (Japanese barberry, garlic mustard); high % germination, wide range of biological tolerances • RAPID GROWTH: annuals and biennials produce huge # seeds every 1-2 years, so always new supply; invasive perennials reach maturity very rapidly to produce seeds and invasive vines rapid growth reaches into canopy to compete for light (or. Bitterwseet, Jap. Honeysuckle, mile-a-minute, kudzu); even privet because of its fruits

  11. Invasive traits • AGGRESSIVE COMPETITION: no predators, parasites or pathogens that kept them in check in native country, add in rapid growth and establishment, have unstoppable force once established---much of it may stem too from competition for sunlight • of 235 woody plants known to invade natural areas in US, 85% intro’d for landscape purposes, 14% for Ag: rough estimate • Eval, selec, promo new plants: new species observed for 5-7 years in nursery before going to arboretum, then observed for 10 more years

  12. Impact of Invasive Plants on Landscaping • Invasive plants are usually not native to the US, but in the US encounter better growth conditions and none of the natural predators and pathogens that keep them in control in their native countries • 300-400 species considered pests nationwide, 30 present in NYS • half invasive species brought here for horticultural purposes

  13. Impact • Invasives cost 123 billion/yr, mostly ag damage • LI has largest number of rare plants and animals in NYS due to its southerly location and maritime climate • Except for HI, NYS also has more foreign plant species than any other state • invasive plants infest 100 million acres of land in US, 4,600 acres more each day

  14. Impact • 42% of US species federally listed as threatened or endangered have invasive species a contributor towards their endangered status • deer selectively browse native plants vs. non-natives thus giving invasive plants an even greater edge • one species was established every 55 weeks from 1851-1960, one new species every 14 weeks from 1961-1995

  15. Susceptibility to Invasion • Environs with fluctuations in resources • Period immediately after disturbance or abrupt increase or decreases in resources by resident vegetation • long intervals between increase in resource supplies (eg, drought)

  16. Buckthorn

  17. Glossy Buckthorn • Insidious, inconspicuous, no showy flowers or bright fruits, form dense thickets, shade out other understory plants especially blackberry, viburnum, winterberry, dogwood and spicebush which are critical for bird food; birds eat buckthorn fruit instead which is really not good for them, specially migrating birds • glossy buckthorn can get up to 23’ high, fruit red to black, floats so is transported that way • cut back, resprouts with stronger root system, used to be promoted for hedge rows; burn, may promote resprouting from roots beneath surface • can invade pristine areas as well so doesn’t need disturbed territory • Leaves and veins obviously curve to tips

  18. Glossy Buckthorn • oval leaves without teeth, small dense tree sim to old apple tree, broken twigs have acrid smell, leaves last well into the fall • CAN STILL BUY THEM FROM NURSERIES! • Likes wetter, more acidic, less shaded heath-oak, oine, spruce forests, seeds can wait in deeper shade for up to 50 years prior to sprout when gap opens up • look for in old fields, hedgerows, powerline cuttings, mower lines at edges of trails or at edges of woods, or where understory disturbed by activity such as logging • buckthorn can red. # of species, change physical structure of habitat, disrupt food web, delay succession • no mow or cut: KILL!

  19. Phreakin’ Phragmites

  20. Phragmites • Very visible invasive species, 8-10 feet tall, believed to be a native, but an agressive strain may have been introduced from Europe around the turn of the century, and this has led to the invasive qualities which we see today • soil record indicate its presence in CT 3000 years ago, some existing stands may be 1000 years old • has valuable role in a small niche in tidal and non-tidal wetlands providing water filtration, food and cover for wildlife • increased development and ag around wetlands may have created disturbed areas which phragmites exploit • high seed producer, dispersed by wind, water, wildlife

  21. Phragmites • Forms dense stands, sends up hew shoots from roots or above ground runners which travel great distances from parents (30 feet in a year) • largest stand is in Hackensack=7000 acres • =herbacious, perennial grass, prefers brackish water, very broad pH range • try cutting back repeatedly before it goes to flower, just before end of July when most of the food reserves are in the aerial portion of the plant; do for several years • glyphosate if used must be applied after the tasseling stage when plant supplying nutrients to rhizome • black plastic mulch may help some

  22. Phragmites • Tiffany creek preserve: four years of mulch mowing have seen a difference---reduced stand vigor • Where they couldn’t mulch mow, they tied stalks together in bundles of 25, swipe stumps altogether; this method is good for preserving interplantings • Move by perennial rhizomes, can attain stem density of up to 200 stems/sq. meter • seeds are disseminated by wind and birds but seeds unable to germinate in water over 5 cm deep

  23. Multiflora Rosa

  24. Rosa multiflora • From Japan and Korea in 1860’s as a rootstock, 1930’s began to plant as wildlife food and cover plant, classified as noxious weed in NJ, spread by birds • extremely bad in pastures, takes over open space and wet lands---flower of sleeping beauty fame? • Mow reg. To inhibit seedlings in grassy areas, dig out roots, cut treat stump w/glyphosate • used to be used as rootstock, think that north expansion is reason for over wintering mocking birds, robins, cedar wax wings=beneficiaries, but other species displaced • Used as a crash and glare barrier in road medians • Seed can stay alive for 20 years and germination is enhanced by passing through bird gut

  25. Multiflora rose • Infests 45 million acres in eastern US • 1960’s free cuttings to landowners • highly competitive for soil nutrients • Control is through mowing 3-6 times/season, for 2-4 years or herbicide to cut stumps late in the growing season • PGR’s used to prevent fruit set • Biocontrols via virus and seed infesting wasp iffy due to susceptibility of desirable roses

  26. Japanese Barberry: garden gem or potential pest?

  27. Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) • Tolerates moderately dense shade (4% daylight) and still produces fruit • can spread by roots generated from stem areas (adventitious roots) • shrubs rarely die so any barberry patch is capable of long term persistence • best time to treat is early spring sing one of earliest plants to break bud • Populations do not rapidly expand in oak dominated forest or on north facing slopes

  28. Doesn’t look mean, does it?

  29. Golden Bamboo

  30. Golden bamboo • DON’T BUY IT, DON’T TRY IT: once there you’ll never get rid of it, spreads like crazy, tall, shades out everything else • likes rich moist soil, hardy grove making plant, roots hardy to -20 F. so don’t mulch them and maybe they’ll die • spread by rhizomes 20-30 ft away: hi neighbor, mowing shoots with lawnmower WILL NOT keep them from spreading • if already have, dig trench and put in metal, concrete fiberglass or heavy plastic curb 18-24” deep

  31. KUDZU!

  32. Kudzu! • Climbing, woody, semi-perennial vine, dies back in winter in this area, thee leaflets, long hanging clusters of purple flowers, flowers in late summer, produces brown, hairy, flattened seed pods w/3-10 hard seeds • smothers, girdles, devours landscape, deep roots • prefers forest edges, abandoned fields, disturbed areas with lots of sun, likes mild wet conditions • intro in 1876, widely planted for soil conservation 1935-mid 50ties, CCC • need to destroy root system, root crowns regen, cut vines and bag up, close mow area for two seasons, cut repeatedly over season to use up stored CHO, late season apply glyphosate to cut stems

  33. Japanese Stilt Grass

  34. Japanese Stilt Grass (eulalia) • Annual grass which forms dense mats, often found growing with garlic mustard • stems may be 40 inches long and root at the nodes • likes moist soils shaded from full sun, so see in marshes, ditches, low woods, borders, damp fields, lawns roadsides • will not tolerate standing water • used as packing for porcelain from China

  35. Japanese Stilt Grass (eulalia) • Spreads rapidly following disturbance or flooding • can still produce seed with only 5% sunlight • remove by hand or mechanical means late in growing season before seed production for several consecutive years • mowing and burning early in season won’t control

  36. Porcelain Berry

  37. Porcelainberry • In the grape family, see berries when you would expect to see grapes, THERE ARE NATIVE SPECIES • Birds eat, disperse, seeds carried down river • Can grow as much as 15 feet in one season • Flowers produced on single season’s growth, hand prune in fall or spring to prevent fruit the following season • If pulling when in fruit, bag or burn fruit, do not compost • Triclopyr herbicide most effective from summer to fall, can do basal bark applications, mix with = volume of oil when temps around 60F for several days

  38. Porcelain berry • Beautiful leaves and berries (spread by birds) • climbs up to 25 ft, grows in sun or shade • TOUTED BY WOMEN’S MAGAZINES • Delicate looking vine, shiny berries white, yellow, purple, blue, intro from Asia in 1870’s as ornamental for estate gardens, spread by birds, easily mistaken for grape • STILL SOLD AT GARDEN CENTERS • Suggested alternatives include trumpet creeper, Virginia creeper, or jackman clematis

  39. Porcelain Berry • likes open, sunny habitats subjected to repeated disturbance like highway shoulders, rr tracks, river banks, shorelines, fields, forest edges, gaps in woodlands • reduces diversity, increases possibility of wind damage to trees, high germination rate and also by root segments • mowing CANNOT dig out root system, can contain but not eradicate by repeated cutting and mowing • best to shade out by trees, foliar glyphosate in early autumn most effective

  40. Porcelain berry

  41. Lesser celandine

  42. Lesser celandine • Most of life spent underground, so timing is critical, see heart shaped leaves mid-Jan, die back by early June, get many yellow flowers in March andApril • looks VERY SIMILAR to marsh marigold which is rare; make sure correctly identify • impact primarily on natiave psring flowring plants, compete for light, likes moist forested areas • IS STILL COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE • spreads by tubers and seeds • manage by digging, but try not to disturb area and get all tubers, must mark areas before die back or won’t find tubers