CYBERLAWS Paper-II Lecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CYBERLAWS Paper-II Lecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI
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CYBERLAWS Paper-II Lecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI

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  1. CYBERLAWSPaper-IILecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI • Concept of privacy • Right to privacy in India • International initiatives –Right to privacy • Privacy rights in U.K ,U.S • Data protection Rights • Privacy issues and the internet • National Security concerns • Threats to privacy • Protecting the right to privacy


  3. Right to Privacy-origin-ancient athens-Right to private property • U.K –Albert v Strange, Kaye v robertson-indicated the need to have privacy rights • Louis Brandeis and Samuel Warren in 1890 proposed a new tort for violation of privacy rights-followed by Roe v wade, Grisworld v Connecticut • Right of privacy-vis avis govt, personal, workplace, digital • The right extends over collection, retention, use and disclosure of personal information. • Internet privacy to facilitate e-commerce • Right to privacy connected with Freedom of Right to speech and expression • Right to privacy is not absolute

  4. The Concept of privacy • Unreasonable intrusion upon a person’s seclusion • Public disclosure of private facts • Publicity that places a person in false light • Appropriation of a person's name or likeness invoked

  5. Right to privacy in India • Article 21 of the Constitution of India-Right to life and personal liberty by necessary implication confers right to privacy – • Kharak singh v State of U.P AIR 1963 SC 1295 • Gobind v State of M.P 1975 SCC 468 • PUCL v UOI (1997) 1 SCC 318 • R.Rajagopal v State of Tamil Nadu (1994)6 SC 632-autoshanker case • Article 19-freedom of speech and expression • Article 19(2) –Reasonable restrictions • One of the restrictions/conditions is National Security • Privacy vs national security balancing competing interests

  6. India and privacy /national security protection • India –Article 21 of the constitution of India • Common law-action for damages for unlawful invasion of privacy exists -2 exceptions-publication relates to public record, discharge of official duties by public servant • India-IT Act,2000 Cryptography provisions, Section 69-power to intercept, Section 72-Breach of confidentiality and privacy, section 80-power to search, seize ,section 44- failure to furnish information, etc • India-Tort of defamation –Section 499 I.P.C • The Right to Information Act,2005-national security and individual privacy concerns see Section 8 • Prevention of terrorism Act 2002 chap V –interception of e-mail communications

  7. International initiatives • Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948- Article 12 recognizes right of privacy • Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,1996-Right to privacy • Article 8 of the European Convention on Human rights-Right to privacy • Council of Europe Convention on human right in securing privacy protection in the context of information technology came into force in 1985-now 20 states ratified convention • Basic ples for data protection, trans border flow of information ,establish consultation committee and procedure for future amendment of convention • European Union Data protection directive 1998-reaffirms principles introduced in the EU Convention

  8. Guidelines –OECD -1980-On protection of privacy and trans border flow of personal info • Collection of personal data with consent • Relevance of data to subject under investigation • Specify purpose of collection • No further use except with consent +legal use • Safeguards to prevent leakage • Accountability is high of persons collecting info • A Person’s Right of access, rectification • Collection Limitation

  9. PERSONAL DATA PRIVACY in U.K & U.S • UK- Data Protection Act 1998 • Processing of data legitimate if person gives consent, legal obligation, public sector interest • Sensitive personal data not processed till granted express consent • Section 13-Right to compensation if data controller contravenes any provisions of the Act • US • Children’s online privacy protection-U.S-in force since 2000. • U.S Freedom of Information Act, The privacy Act of 1974-Department of justice v reporters committee for freedom of press • U.S-Electronic communication privacy Act-prohibits unauthorised interception, disclosure of electronic comm- violation subject to civil, criminal liabilities ,applies to govt, private persons both • U.S-Daniel Bernstein V U.S Deptt of State 922 F Supp1426(ND Cal 1996) • Anti-terrorism ACT ,2001-SUNSET REVIEW DEC05.

  10. Threats to privacy • Hacking • Cookies • HTTP • Information provided voluntarily • Browsers • E-mail • Websites • Spam • Softwares to check employee behavior • Satellite vigilance

  11. Protecting privacy • Encryption • Trust mark-webtrust, truste,etc • Anonymity • Cookie guards-cookie cop, siemen’s webwasher, cookie crush,etc • Privacy policy of website-p3p-platform for privacy preference • Secure system for electronic money transfer- e.g SSL • Need for legislation and enforcement • Establish effective dispute resolution