cyberlaws paper ii lecture viii karnika seth partner seth associates 3 oct 05 ili l.
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CYBERLAWS Paper-II Lecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI Concept of privacy Right to privacy in India International initiatives –Right to privacy Privacy rights in U.K ,U.S Data protection Rights Privacy issues and the internet National Security concerns

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cyberlaws paper ii lecture viii karnika seth partner seth associates 3 oct 05 ili
CYBERLAWSPaper-IILecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates, 3-Oct-05/ILI
  • Concept of privacy
  • Right to privacy in India
  • International initiatives –Right to privacy
  • Privacy rights in U.K ,U.S
  • Data protection Rights
  • Privacy issues and the internet
  • National Security concerns
  • Threats to privacy
  • Protecting the right to privacy
slide3
Right to Privacy-origin-ancient athens-Right to private property
  • U.K –Albert v Strange, Kaye v robertson-indicated the need to have privacy rights
  • Louis Brandeis and Samuel Warren in 1890 proposed a new tort for violation of privacy rights-followed by Roe v wade, Grisworld v Connecticut
  • Right of privacy-vis avis govt, personal, workplace, digital
  • The right extends over collection, retention, use and disclosure of personal information.
  • Internet privacy to facilitate e-commerce
  • Right to privacy connected with Freedom of Right to speech and expression
  • Right to privacy is not absolute
the concept of privacy
The Concept of privacy
  • Unreasonable intrusion upon a person’s seclusion
  • Public disclosure of private facts
  • Publicity that places a person in false light
  • Appropriation of a person's name or likeness invoked
right to privacy in india
Right to privacy in India
  • Article 21 of the Constitution of India-Right to life and personal liberty by necessary implication confers right to privacy –
  • Kharak singh v State of U.P AIR 1963 SC 1295
  • Gobind v State of M.P 1975 SCC 468
  • PUCL v UOI (1997) 1 SCC 318
  • R.Rajagopal v State of Tamil Nadu (1994)6 SC 632-autoshanker case
  • Article 19-freedom of speech and expression
  • Article 19(2) –Reasonable restrictions
  • One of the restrictions/conditions is National Security
  • Privacy vs national security balancing competing interests
india and privacy national security protection
India and privacy /national security protection
  • India –Article 21 of the constitution of India
  • Common law-action for damages for unlawful invasion of privacy exists -2 exceptions-publication relates to public record, discharge of official duties by public servant
  • India-IT Act,2000 Cryptography provisions, Section 69-power to intercept, Section 72-Breach of confidentiality and privacy, section 80-power to search, seize ,section 44- failure to furnish information, etc
  • India-Tort of defamation –Section 499 I.P.C
  • The Right to Information Act,2005-national security and individual privacy concerns see Section 8
  • Prevention of terrorism Act 2002 chap V –interception of e-mail communications
international initiatives
International initiatives
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948- Article 12 recognizes right of privacy
  • Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,1996-Right to privacy
  • Article 8 of the European Convention on Human rights-Right to privacy
  • Council of Europe Convention on human right in securing privacy protection in the context of information technology came into force in 1985-now 20 states ratified convention
  • Basic ples for data protection, trans border flow of information ,establish consultation committee and procedure for future amendment of convention
  • European Union Data protection directive 1998-reaffirms principles introduced in the EU Convention
guidelines oecd 1980 on protection of privacy and trans border flow of personal info
Guidelines –OECD -1980-On protection of privacy and trans border flow of personal info
  • Collection of personal data with consent
  • Relevance of data to subject under investigation
  • Specify purpose of collection
  • No further use except with consent +legal use
  • Safeguards to prevent leakage
  • Accountability is high of persons collecting info
  • A Person’s Right of access, rectification
  • Collection Limitation
personal data privacy in u k u s
PERSONAL DATA PRIVACY in U.K & U.S
  • UK- Data Protection Act 1998
  • Processing of data legitimate if person gives consent, legal obligation, public sector interest
  • Sensitive personal data not processed till granted express consent
  • Section 13-Right to compensation if data controller contravenes any provisions of the Act
  • US
  • Children’s online privacy protection-U.S-in force since 2000.
  • U.S Freedom of Information Act, The privacy Act of 1974-Department of justice v reporters committee for freedom of press
  • U.S-Electronic communication privacy Act-prohibits unauthorised interception, disclosure of electronic comm- violation subject to civil, criminal liabilities ,applies to govt, private persons both
  • U.S-Daniel Bernstein V U.S Deptt of State 922 F Supp1426(ND Cal 1996)
  • Anti-terrorism ACT ,2001-SUNSET REVIEW DEC05.
threats to privacy
Threats to privacy
  • Hacking
  • Cookies
  • HTTP
  • Information provided voluntarily
  • Browsers
  • E-mail
  • Websites
  • Spam
  • Softwares to check employee behavior
  • Satellite vigilance
protecting privacy
Protecting privacy
  • Encryption
  • Trust mark-webtrust, truste,etc
  • Anonymity
  • Cookie guards-cookie cop, siemen’s webwasher, cookie crush,etc
  • Privacy policy of website-p3p-platform for privacy preference
  • Secure system for electronic money transfer- e.g SSL
  • Need for legislation and enforcement
  • Establish effective dispute resolution