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How to Use This Presentation. To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar.

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

    2. Resources Chapter Presentation Transparencies Brain Food Video Quiz Standardized Test Prep

    3. Chapter 26 Studying Space Table of Contents Section 1 Viewing the Universe Section 2 Movements of Earth

    4. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Objectives • Describecharacteristics of the universe in terms of time, distance, and organization • Identifythe visible and nonvisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum • Comparerefracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes • Explain how telescopes for nonvisible electromagnetic radiation differ from light telescopes

    5. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe The Value of Astronomy astronomythe scientific study of the universe • Scientists who study the universe are called astronomers • In the process of observing the universe, astronomers have made exciting discoveries, such as new planets, stars, black holes, and nebulas. • By studying these objects, astronomers have been able to learn more about the origin of Earth and the processes involved in the formation of our solar system.

    6. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe The Value of Astronomy, continued • Studies of how stars shine may one day lead to improved or new energy sources on Earth. • Astronomers may also learn how to protect us from potential catastrophes, such as collisions between asteroids and Earth. • Astronomical research is supported by federal agencies, such as the National Science Foundation and NASA. Private foundations and industry also fund research in astronomy

    7. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Characteristics of the Universe Organization of the Universe galaxya collection of stars, dust, and gas bound together by gravity • The solar system includes the sun, Earth, the other planets, and many smaller objects such as asteroids and comets. • The solar system is part of a galaxy. • The galaxy in which the solar system resides is called the Milky Way galaxy. • The nearest part of the universe to Earth is our solar system.

    8. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Characteristics of the Universe, continued Measuring Distances in the Universe astronomical unitthe average distance between the Earth and the sun; approximately 150 million kilometers (symbol, AU) • Astronomers also use the speed of light to measure distance. • Light travels at 300,000,000 m/s. In one year, light travels 9.4607 x 1012 km. This distance is known as a light-year. • Aside from the sun, the closet star to Earth is 4.2 light-years away.

    9. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Observing Space Electromagnetic Spectrum electromagnetic spectrumall of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. • Light, radio waves, and X rays are all examples of electromagnetic radiation. • The radiation is composed of traveling waves of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate at fixed frequencies and wavelengths.

    10. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Observing Space, continued Visible Electromagnetic Radiation • Though all light travels at the same speed, different colors of light have different wavelengths. These colors can be seen when visible light is passed through a spectrum. • The human eye can see only radiation of wavelengths in the visible light range of the spectrum. • Electromagnetic radiation shorter or longer than wavelengths of violet or red light cannot be seen by humans. • The shortest visible wavelength of light are blue and violet, while the longest visible wavelength of light are orange and red.

    11. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check Which type of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by humans?

    12. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check, continued Which type of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by humans? The only kind of electromagnetic radiation the human eye can detect is visible light.

    13. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Observing Space, continued Invisible Electromagnetic Radiation • Invisible wavelengths cannot be seen by the human eye. They include infrared waves, microwaves, radio waves, ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays, and are detected only by instruments. • In 1852, a scientist named Sir Frederick William Herschel discovered infrared, which means “below the red.” • Infrared is electromagnetic radiation that has waves longer than waves of visible light. Ultraviolet means “beyond the violet” and has wavelengths shorter than waves of visible light.

    14. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Telescopes telescopean instrument that collects electromagnetic radiation from the sky and concentrates it for better observation. • In 1609, an Italian scientist, Galileo, heard of a device that used two lenses to make distant objects appear closer. • Telescopes that collect only visible light are called optical telescopes. • The two types of optical telescopes are refracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes.

    15. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Telescopes, continued Refracting Telescopes refracting telescopea telescope that uses a set of lenses to gather and focus light from distant objects • The bending of light is called refraction. • Refracting telescopes have an objective lens that bends light that passes through the lens and focuses the light to be magnified by an eyepiece. • One problem with refracting telescopes is that the lens focuses different colors of light at different distances causing the image to distort. • Another problem is that objective lenses that are too large will sag under their own weight and cause images to become distorted.

    16. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Telescopes, continued Reflecting Telescopes reflecting telescopesa telescope that uses a curved mirror to gather and focus light from distant objects • In the mid-1600s Isaac Newton solved the problem of color separation that resulted from the use of lenses. • When light enters a reflecting telescope, the light is reflected by a large curved mirror to a second mirror. The second mirror reflects the light to the eyepiece, where the image is magnified and focused. • Unlike refracting telescopes, reflecting telescopes can be made very large without affecting the quality of the image.

    17. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Telescopes, continued The diagram below shows reflecting and refracting telescopes.

    18. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check What are the problems with refracting telescopes?

    19. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check, continued What are the problems with refracting telescopes? Images produced by refracting telescopes are subject to distortion because of the way different colors of visible light are focused at different distances from the lens and because of weight limitations on the objective lens.

    20. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Telescopes, continued Telescopes for Invisible Electromagnetic Radiation • Scientists have developed telescopes that detect invisible radiation, such as a radiotelescope for radio waves. • Ground-based telescopes work best at high elevations, where the air is dry. • The only way to study many forms of radiation is from space because the Earth’s atmosphere acts as a shield against many forms of electromagnetic radiation.

    21. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Space-Based Astronomy • Spacecrafts that contain telescopes and other instruments have been launched to investigate planets, stars, and other distant objects • In space, Earth’s atmosphere cannot interfere with the detection of electromagnetic radiation.

    22. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check Why do scientists launch spacecraft beyond Earth’s atmosphere?

    23. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Reading check, continued Why do scientists launch spacecraft beyond Earth’s atmosphere? Scientists launch spacecraft into orbit to detect radiation screened out by Earth’s atmosphere and to avoid light pollution and other atmospheric distortions.

    24. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Space-Based Astronomy, continued Space Telescopes • The Hubble Space Telescope collects electromagnetic radiation from objects in space. • The Chandra X-ray Observatory makes remarkably clear images using X rays from objects in space, such as remnants of exploded stars. • The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected gamma rays from objects, such as black holes. • The James Webb Space Telescope will detect infrared radiation from objects in space after it is launched in 2011.

    25. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Space-Based Astronomy, continued Other Spacecraft • Since the early 1960s, spacecraft have been sent out of Earth’s orbit to study other planets. • The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft investigated Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and collected images of these planets and their moons. • The Galileo spacecraft orbited Jupiter and its moons from 1995 to 2003. • The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will study Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Like Earth, Titan has an atmosphere that is rich in nitrogen. Scientists hope to learn more about the origins of Earth by studying Titan.

    26. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Space-Based Astronomy, continued Human Space Exploration • Spacecraft that carry only instruments and computers are described as robotic and can travel beyond the solar system. • The first humans went into space in the 1960’s. Between 1969 and 1972, NASA landed 12 people on the moon. Humans have never gone beyond Earth’s moon. • The loss of two space shuttles and their crews, the Challenger in 1986 and the Columbia in 2003, have focused public attention on the risks of human space exploration.

    27. Chapter 26 Section 1 Viewing the Universe Space-Based Astronomy, continued Spinoffs of the Space Program • Satellites in orbit provide information about weather all over Earth. • Other satellites broadcast television signals from around the world or allow people to navigate cars and airplanes. • Even medical equipment, like the heart pump, have been improved based on NASA’s research on the flow of fluids through rockets.

    28. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Objectives • Describetwo lines of evidence for Earth’s rotation. • Explain how the change in apparent positions of constellations provides evidence of Earth’s rotation and revolution around the sun. • Summarize how Earth’s rotation and revolution provide a basis for measuring time. • Explain how the tilt of Earth’s axis and Earth’s movement cause seasons.

    29. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Rotating Earth rotationthe spin of a body on its axis • Each complete rotation takes about one day. • The Earth rotates from west to east. At any given moment, the hemisphere of Earth that faces the sun experiences daylight. At the same time, the hemisphere of Earth that faces away from the sun experiences nighttime. • These movements of Earth are also responsible for the seasons and changes in weather.

    30. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Rotating Earth, continued The Foucault Pendulum • In the 19th century, the scientist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault, provided evidence of Earth’s rotation by using a pendulum. • The path of the pendulum appeared to change over time. However, the path does not actually change. Instead, the Earth moves the floor as Earth rotates on its axis. The Coriollis Effect • The rotation of Earth causes ocean currents and wind belts to curve to the left or right. This curving is caused by Earth’s rotation and is called the Coriolis effect.

    31. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Rotating Earth, continued The diagram below shows the Earth’s orbit.

    32. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Revolving Earth revolutionthe motion of a body that travels around another body in space; one complete trip along an orbit • Even though you cannot feel Earth moving, it is traveling around the sun at an average speed of 29.8 km/s. • Each complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes 365 1/4 days, or about one year.

    33. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Revolving Earth, continued perihelionthe point in the orbit of a planet at which the planet is closet to the sun aphelionthe point in the orbit of a planet at which the planet is farthest from the sun • An ellipse is a closed curve whose shape is determined by two points, or foci, within the ellipse. In planetary orbits, one focus is located within the sun. • Earth’s orbit around the sun is an ellipse. Because its orbit is an ellipse, Earth is not always the same distance from the sun.

    34. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Constellations and Earth’s Motion Evidence of Earth’s Rotation • A constellation is a group of stars that are organized in a recognizable pattern. Over a period of several hours, the constellations appear to have changed its position in the sky. The rotation of Earth on its axis causes the change in position. Evidence of Earth’s Revolution • Earth’s revolution around the sun is evidenced by the apparent motion of constellations. • Thus different constellations will appear in the night sky as the seasons change.

    35. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Constellations and Earth’s Motion, continued The diagram below shows how constellations move across the sky.

    36. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Reading check How does movement of constellations provide evidence of Earth’s rotation and revolution?

    37. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Reading check, continued How does movement of constellations provide evidence of Earth’s rotation and revolution? Constellations provide two kinds of evidence of Earth’s motion. As Earth rotates, the stars appear to change position during the night. As Earth revolves around the sun, Earth’s night sky faces a different part of the universe. As a result, different constellations appear in the night sky as the seasons change.

    38. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time • Earth’s motion provides the basis for measuring time. • A day is determined by Earth’s rotation on its axis. Each complete rotation of Earth on its axis takes one day, which is then broken into 24 hours. • The year is determined by Earth’s revolution around the sun. Each complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes 365 1/4 days, or one year.

    39. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time, continued Formation of the Calendar • A calendar is a system created for measuring long intervals of time by dividing time into periods of days, weeks, months, and years. • Because the year is 365 1/4 days long, the extra 1/4 day is usually ignored. Every four years, one day is added to the month of February. Any year that contains an extra day is called a leap year. • More than 2,000 years ago, Julius Caesar, of the Roman Empire, revised the calendar to account for the extra day every four years.

    40. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time, continued The Modern Calendar • In the late 1500s, Pope Gregory XIII formed a committee to create a calendar that would keep the calendar aligned with the seasons. We use this calendar today. • In this Gregorian calendar, century years, such as 1800 and 1900, are not leap years unless the century years are exactly divisible by 400.

    41. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time, continued Time Zone • Earth’s surface has been divided into 24 standard time zones to avoid problems created by different local times. The time zone is one hour earlier than the time in the zone east of each zone. International Date Line • The International Date Line was established to prevent confusion about the point on Earth’s surface where the date changes. • This line runs from north to south through the Pacific Ocean. The line is drawn so that it does not cut through islands or continents.

    42. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Reading check What is the purpose of the International Date Line?

    43. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Reading check, continued What is the purpose of the International Date Line? Because time zones are based on Earth’s rotation, as you travel west, you eventually come to a location where, on one side of time zone border, the calendar moves ahead one day. The purpose of the International Date Line is to locate the border so that the transition would affect the least number of people. So that it will affect the least number of people, the International Date Line is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, instead of on a continent.

    44. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time, continued The diagram below shows the Earth’s 24 different time zones.

    45. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 Measuring Time, continued Daylight Savings Time • Because of the tilt of Earth’s axis, daylight time is shorter in the winter months than in the summer months. During the summer months, days are longer so that the sun rises earlier in the morning. • The United States uses daylight savings time. Under this system, clocks are set one hour ahead of standard time in April, and in October, clocks are set back one hour to return to standard time.

    46. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Seasons • Earth’s axis is tilted at 23.5˚. The Earth’s axis always points toward the North Star. The North Pole sometimes tilts towards the sun and sometimes tilts away from the sun. • The Northern Hemisphere has longer periods of daylight than the Southern Hemisphere when the North Pole tilts towards the sun. • The Southern Hemisphere has longer periods of daylight when the North Pole tilts away from the sun.

    47. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Seasons, continued Seasonal Weather • Changes in the angle at which the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface cause the seasons. • When the North Pole tilts away from the sun, the angle of the sun’s rays falling on the Northern Hemisphere is low. • This means the Northern Hemisphere experiences fewer daylight hours, less energy, and lower temperatures. • Meanwhile, the sun’s rays hits the Southern Hemisphere at a greater angle. Therefore, the Southern Hemisphere has more daylight hours and experiences a warm summer season.

    48. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Seasons, continued Equinoxes equinoxthe moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator • At an equinox, the sun’s rays strike Earth at a 90° angle along the equator. The hours of daylight and darkness are approximately equal everywhere on Earth on that day. • The autumnal equinox occurs on September 22 or 23 of each year and marks the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere. • The vernal equinox occurs on March 21 or 22 of each year and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere.

    49. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Seasons, continued Summer Solstices solsticethe point at which the sun is as far north or as far south of the equator as possible • The sun’s rays strike the Earth at a 90° angle along the Tropic of Cancer. • The summer solstice occurs on June 21 or 22 of each year and marks the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere. • The farther north of the equator you are, the longer the period of daylight you have.

    50. Section 2 Movements of the Earth Chapter 26 The Seasons, continued Winter Solstices • The sun’s rays strike the Earth at a 90° angle along the Tropic of Tropic of Capricorn. The sun follows its lowest path across the sky on the winter solstice. • The winter solstice occurs on December 21 or 22 of each year and marks the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. • Places that are north of the Arctic Circle then have 24 hours of darkness. However, places that are south of the Antarctic Circle have 24 hours of daylight at that time.