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Academic Vocabulary. Today’s Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned? What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”? 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary. Presenter: Amy Benjamin

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academic vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary

  • Today’s Agenda:
  • How do words get learned and
  • stay learned?
  • What do we mean by “academic
  • vocabulary”?
  • 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary
  • instruction
  • 4. Classroom practices that grow
  • vocabulary

Presenter: Amy Benjamin

You may access any of today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.com

slide2

Rich

  • Gradual
  • Cumulative
  • Recursive
  • Aggressive
  • Purposeful
  • Pervasive
  • Goals:
  • Vocabulary growth in authentic situations
  • Improved ability to derive meaning of
  • unfamiliar words
  • 3. Positive attitude about words and language

The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use.

Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com

slide3

Implicit:

Natural language acquisition

through immersion

  • Aggressive
  • Purposeful
  • Pervasive
  • Persistent

Explicit:

Planned instruction on

targeted words:

Etymology (word histories)

Morphology (word parts

Estimation: 3% to 20% of instructional time spent on vocabulary

slide6

absorption

superhydrophilicity

superhydrophobicity

slide7

“Lotus Effect” Learning:

Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl

Vocabulary Words:

Algae—seaweed

Bulwark—a wall built for defense

Estuary– wide mouth of a river where it empties into the sea

Incandescence—brightness given off by a hot object

Mangrove—a tropical tree

Poultice—herbal medicines applied to a wound or sore

Undulating—waving, swinging

slide8

“Rose Effect” Learning:

Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl

Mangrove: a tropical tree that grows in

clusters very close to a body of water

What do we notice about mangrove trees?

(other than “mangrove”) What might I google to get a picture

of a mangrove tree?

Did you ever see mangrove trees? where?

slide9

“Rose Effect” Learning:

Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl

Poultice: a mix of herbs or other plants, crushed and placed inside cloth, to be

applied to a wound as a home remedy

Poultices can be made of herbs, garlic, carrots, potatoes, ginger,

lemon, etc.

slide10

incandescence: glow

example

non-

example

“ Watering Can Effect” Learning:

Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl

adj: incandescent eyes

Synonyms and

Near Synonyms:

illumination

radiance

gleam

glistening

glittering

glint

brilliance

Related words:

candle

candidate

kindle

Sentence:Under an incandescent sliver of the moon, the trees appeared life-like..

slide11

What if ad executives taught vocabulary?

repetition

association with emotion

association with an image

humor

story

novelty

slide14

apprentice: (n)

one bound by legal agreement

to work for another for a

specified time in return for

his training in a trade, an art,

or a business

scheme: (n, v)

a systematic plan

of action

Definition contains unfamiliar language

Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading

Limited information

Usually, no context

Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition

slide15

“Charlotte, are you thirsty?

Would you like some juice?

What kind of juice do you

want? Do you want apple

juice? That’s the yellow juice

that you liked at Nana’s. No?

Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice?

OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or

the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully.

Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the

place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.

slide16

BOSU

II. New word for a simple but new concept

slide17

Categories of Word Knowledge:

photosynthesis

insulin

quadratic equation

calculus

  • New word/ new, complex concept
  • Concept may be understood on progressively deeper level

III.

of limited value
Of Limited Value…

Lists alone

Context alone

Definitions alone

Dictionaries and Glossaries alone

Of Durable Value…

Words in clusters

Leisure reading

Multiple exposures in various contexts

Chances to speak, hear, write

Manipulation of forms of words

Classify and categorize word lists

Word games, puzzles

rules of thumb
Rules of Thumb

New learners need SIX (meaningful) exposures to a new word during the initial lesson and at least

THIRTY additional exposures during the ensuing month.

The chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context are 10-15%.

We learn most words through non-conscious effort, in

pursuit of information of interest.

slide20

Visuals illuminate meaning

Explicit Teaching: Etymology Illuminates Meaning

nostalgia

algia: pain

neuralgia

Gr: nostos: return home

slide21

Explicit Teaching: Personal connections Illuminate Meaning

nostalgia

Have you ever been homesick?

Stories illuminate meaning

slide22

Teaching collocation facilitates use:

I’m nostalgic for…

I’m nostalgic about…

feel nostalgic….

Explicit Teaching: Teaching morphology facilitates use

nostalgia, nostalgic

Have you ever felt nostalgic for elementary school?

Connecting to related wordsfacilitates use:

sentimental, memories, forgotten, reminds me of, evokative,

deja vu

slide23

Tier 3: glossary word:

Multisyllabic

Specific to a subject area

Latin or Greek-based

topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle,

sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer

Tier 2: Words of education, business,

government, religion:

Components: Prefix, root, suffix

Latin-based

elevation, formation, protrude, expansive,

isolated, remote

Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family

1 or 2 syllables

Learned naturally, through exposure

hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb,

green, high…

slide24

vexed

sagacity

waning

veracity

Academic Vocabulary:

inversion

causal

fluctuate

offset

Literary Vocabulary:

slide25

Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart

Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future

Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance

Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation

Sagacity: Sound judgment

Hearkening: Giving careful attention

Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder

Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined

Over-acuteness: Very keen

Concealment: A means of hiding

Waned: Grown gradually less

Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts

slide26

Understanding the words we meet in reading

Target Word:

Dictionary Definition:

Visual:

Draw or find a picture:

My guess:

Definition in my own words:

Complete sentence of at least ____words:

Must contain an action verb and a visual image.

slide28

Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly?

  • Three Questions:
  • How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again
  • soon? Is it necessary for comprehension?
  • Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning
  • skills that can be applied to other words?
  • 3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
slide30

The Academic Word List (AWL):

Background:The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most

frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts.

These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency.

A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the word

adjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words).

The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners

studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law.

This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one,

specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage.

Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek.

Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly

boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught

these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely

to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and

energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most

basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation.

The following link gives you a two-page version of the list:

http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf

Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.

academic word list subset 1
Academic Word List: Subset 1

analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary

Academic Word List: Subset 2

achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate

aspect assist category chapter commission community

complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct

consume credit culture design distinct equate element

evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item

journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive

potential previous primary purchase range region regulate

regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select

site strategy survey tradition transfer

vocabulary content sentence vcs daily practice
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS)Daily Practice:

analyze approach area assess assume authorityavailable benefit conceptconsist context constitutecontract data define derive distribute economy environmentestablishestimate evident factor finance formulafunction income indicateindividual interpretinvolveissue labor legal legislate major methodpercent period principle proceed processpolicy requireresearch respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theoryvary

achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate

aspect assist category chapter commission community

complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct

consume credit culture design distinct equate element

evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item

journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive

potential previous primary purchase range region regulate

regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select

site strategysurvey tradition transfer

alternative circumstance comment compensatecomponent consent considerable constantconstrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude

fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layerlink locate maximize minor negateoutcomephilosophy physicalproportion publishreact register relyremovescheme sequenceshift specify

sufficient technical technique technology valid volume

Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing

one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your

sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long.

academic word list subset 3
Academic Word List: Subset 3

alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude

fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify

sufficient technical technique technology valid volume

Academic Word List: Subset 4

access adequacy annual apparent approximate attitude

attribute civil code commit communicate concentrate

confer contrast cycle debate despite dimension domestic

emerge error ethnic grant hence hypothesis implement

implicate impose integrate internal investigate

mechanism occupy output overall parallel

parameter phase predict prior principal professional project

promote regime resolve retain series statistic status stress

subsequent sum summary undertake

academic word list subset 5
Academic Word List: Subset 5

academy adjust alter amend aware capacity challeng clause compound conflict consult contact decline discrete draft enable energy enforce entity equivalent evolve expand expose external facilitate fundamental generate generation image liberal license logic margin mental medical modify

monitor network notion objective orient perspective precise

prime psychology pursue ratio reject revenue stable style

substitute sustain symbol target transit trend version welfare whereas

Academic Word List: Subset 6

abstract acknowledge accuracy aggregate allocate assign

attach bond brief capable cite cooperate discriminate

display diverse domain edit enhance estate exceed

explicit federal flexible furthermore gender ignorance

interval lecture migrate minimum ministry motive neutral

nevertheless overseas precede presume rational recover

reveal scope subsidy trace transform transport underlie utilize

academic word list subset 7
Academic Word List: Subset 7

adapt adult advocate aid channel chemical classic

comprehensive comprise confirm contrary convert

decade definite deny differentiate dispose dynamic equip

eliminate empirical extract file finite foundation grade

guarantee hierarchy identical ideology infer innovate insert

intervene isolate media mode paradigm phenomenon priority

prohibit publication release reverse simulate sole

submit successor thesis topic transmit ultimate unique

Academic Word List: Subset 8

abandon accompany accumulate ambiguous appendix appreciate

arbitrary automate bias chart clarify commodity complement

conform contemporary contradict crucial currency denote

detect deviate displace eventual exhibit exploit

fluctuate guideline highlight implicit induce inevitable infrastructure

inspect intense manipulate minimize nuclear offset paragraph

practitioner predominant prospect radical random reinforce

restore revise schedule tense terminate theme thereby uniform

vehicle via virtual visual widespread

academic word list subset 9
Academic Word List: Subset 9

accommodate analogy anticipate assure attain behalf cease

coherent coincide commence compatible concurrent confine

controversy converse device devote diminish distort duration

erode ethic format inherent insight integral intermediate

manual mature mediate medium military minimal mutual norm

overlap passive portion preliminary protocol qualitative refine

restrain revolution rigid scenario sphere subordinate

supplement suspend temporary trigger unify violate vision

Academic Word List: Subset 10

adjacent albeit assemble collapse colleague compile conceive

convince depress encounter forthcoming incline integrity intrinsic

invoke levy likewise nonetheless notwithstanding ongoing

panel persist pose reluctance so-called straightforward undergo

whereas whereby

slide37

Open Field

Academic Word List

A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction

EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION

“Focus 40” words from the Academic Word List

selected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week

2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words

Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary

Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes,

including self-selected material.

Elevated language used in class by teachers; students given

motive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech and

writing.

IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION

slide38

Vocabulary Concordance

Subset 1

of two- thirds Latin-based and

one third Arabic-based words.

1.

Spanish

consists

of roughly half Spanish and half

French words..

2.

Catalan

consists

3.

consistent

in your daily practice.

To learn to play a musical

instrument, you must be

4.

consists

Jazz

of African elements.

5.

The U.S. government

consists

of three branches: legislative,

judicial, executive.

6.

consists

The Supreme Court

of nine Justices.

7.

Cake batter should have a smooth

consistency

before you bake it.

slide39

Vocabulary Concordance

Subset 1

of life on other planets is intriguing.

1.

The

concept

2.

Conception

begins with the union of two cells.

3.

concept

to learn, at first.

Quantum physics can be

a difficult

4.

conceptualize

a world of justice and opportunity.

Idealists

5.

concept

of the Pythagorean theorem is

still used today..

The

6.

speaking, Einstein’s Theory of

Relativity could some day help

us time travel.

Conceptually

7.

He was unable to grasp the

concept

of derivatives in math.

slide40

Academic Vocabulary Concordance

Subset 2

the teacher’s attitude as rude and

therefore unprofessional.

The class

1.

perceived

The student’s unwillingness

to comply with directives

led the teacher to

2.

perceive

that she might .need alternative

methods of instruction.

3.

perception

of the viewer.

The angle of a plane can depend on the

4.

perceptions

and observations of the scientist must be objective.

The

a potential problem because of the

river’s current, the captain changed

course.

5.

Perceiving

6.

of its role in the people’s lives is the

basis of its philosophy.

perception

The government’s

7.

I

perceive

a problem with the safety rules

not being properly posted.

slide41

Vocabulary Concordance

Subset 5

1.

folding is essential.

When doing origami

precise

measurements are required for

figuring out the dimensions of

the angle.

precise

2.

The

3.

precision

tools require high maintenance.

4.

precise

Synthetic diamonds require

cutting.

5.

The Boeing 787 is the result of

precise

engineering.

6.

The owner’s manual illustrates

precisely

how to assemble the bicycle.

7.

precise

geographic locations.

GPS satellites afford

slide42

Subset 2

Consequence

It occurs later.

It happens as a result.

An event’s effect.

slide43

Subset 6

Incorporate

Bring into the mix—

Creating a new oneness—

Integrate the parts.

slide44

Subset 4

Implement

Employ and apply

Put to immediate use.

Get the plan to work.

morphology chart
Morphology Chart

It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words

follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms.