UNIT 1: NEED TO KNOW STANDARDS FOR US HISTORY. Students must master these standards to perform well on unit exams, the GHSGT in Social Studies and the EOCT. . SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17 th century.
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Students must master these standards to perform well on unit exams, the GHSGT in Social Studies and the EOCT.
SSUSH1-1: Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
The first British settlers arrived in what is now Virginia in 1607 under the leadership of Captain John Smith. The colony of Jamestown was built by the Virginia Company as an economic venture. Their mission was to find gold, Christianize the natives and find a waterway to India through the northwest territory.
The colony established trade relationships with the native Powhatan Indians (Powhatan was also the name of their chief, his daughter was Pocahontas). The colonists at first depended entirely on the natives for their survival –for food and learning how to live through the winter. Often the relationship between them was violent and bloody
He brought the colony some order. The colony suffered through contaminated water, starvation and disease. They did not find gold and could not successfully search for a northwest passage to India because they were too involved in surviving. He forced the colonists to learn to farm and persuaded the Powhatan to provide food.
Tobacco. John Rolfe, a colonist experimented with growing a new type of tobacco which was a cross between Brazilian tobacco and a weed the Native Americans had grown for a long time. It was successful and tobacco became “brown gold” for the colony and allowed it to grow and export tobacco to Europe.
A good supply of land and labor. In order to make money growing tobacco, you had to plant a lot. Plantations (large farms) devoted to tobacco farming were developed. Many plantation owners imported indentured servants from England to work as laborers. In exchange for passage to America, food and shelter, the indentured servant worked for a certain period and then earned their freedom. In 1619, the first African were brought in as indentured servants but later Africans were brought in as slaves. Conditions for all of these laborers were harsh.
English settlers and the Native Americans continued to battle each other over control of land and resources. Some indentured servants who had earned their freedom wanted to start their own farms now but the natives did not want to give up any more land. The Powhatan attacked the colony, killed over 300 colonists and left the Virginia Company bankrupt. The King revoked the Virginia Company’s charter and took the colony over. The English sent more troops and settlers to strengthen the colony.
Nathaniel Bacon was a Jamestown colonist who hated the natives. He raised an army of former indentured servants and went on the attack. The Governor declared the army illegal and so Bacon wanted to confront the colonial leadership about several grievances, including the lack of representation for the common people in the Virginia legislature. This confrontation turned violent and Bacon attacked Jamestown. This became known as Bacon’s Rebellion. This rebellion made the planter class want to hold onto their wealth and power but also showed the growing power of the former indentured servants.
The House of Burgesses was the first representative body in colonial America. It first met in Jamestown in 1619. Two citizen representatives, or Burgesses, were selected from each of Virginia’s 11 districts. They claimed power to tax and make laws. The English governor had the power to veto any legislation he did not like.
SSUSH1-2. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter.
The driving force for colonists to settle along the Atlantic coast in North America in New England was religion. Puritans were people who wanted the Anglican Church of England to rid itself of Catholic rituals and practices. King James of England thought these people were a threat to his rule and he tried to expel them from England. The first group of Puritans, sometimes called THE PILGRIMS, came to America in 1620 aboard the MAYFLOWER. They were hoping to land in the Virginia colony, but landed farther north and set up a new colony at Plymouth Bay.
Before leaving the Mayflower, the colonists agreed to govern themselves in the MAYFLOWER COMPACT, a document that established self-government and the concept for the separation of church and state and the rule of the majority. In 1629, other Puritans arrived and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony with John Winthrop as their leader. Winthrop delivered the “Model of Christian Charity” sermon on board the Arabella before they landed, calling for the new colony to act as a “city upon a hill,” for all the Christian world to see and copy.
Other New England colonies were established, like Rhode Island, in the name of religious freedom by a Puritan who didn’t like the dominance of the Puritan Church, Roger Williams.
The first constitution in colonial America was established in Connecticut, “The Fundamental Orders,” in the spirit of self government established by the Puritan communities. The colonies of New England relied on town meetings and developed their own colonial legislatures.
The relationship between the Puritans and the Native Americans were difficult from the beginning, finally resulting in most of the native American population being wiped out by the colonists.
The Puritan Church was losing membership because of their inflexibility and in 1662, the Halfway Covenant gave non-converted Puritans a partial membership in the church. In 1692, a group of young girls in Salem, Massachusetts got caught up in hysteria about witchcraft that resulted in 20 executions of women accused of being witches. This damaged the Puritan church beyond repair.
In 1686, King James II was fed up with the political and economic independence of New England and brought these New England colonies under stricter control with the establishment of the Dominion of New England.
SSUSH1-3. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
The Dutch West India Company first established the New Amsterdam colony in 1623 as an economic enterprise for the trade of furs from the Hudson Valley. After fights with the Native Americans, the Dutch were finally expelled by the British. New Amsterdam became New York City and the colony became known as New York.
A group of religious dissenters called Quakers believed the power of God resided in the soul of the individual. They were ordered to leave the Puritan community of Massachusetts Bay. Many of them joined William Penn of England in the founding of Pennsylvania or “Penn’s Woods.”New Jersey and Delaware were also Quaker colonies that were established in 1664 and 1703. They were similar to Pennsylvania politically, socially and economically and with New York these colonies formed what were called the Middle Colonies.
SSUSH1-4. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec.
The French arrived in North America around 1524, focusing mostly in what is today Canada and the upper northeastern U.S. French explorers such as Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain developed a friendly business relationship with Native Americans, mostly in the fur trade dealing in beaver pelts.
The French trade networks covered the Northeast down the Mississippi River to present day New Orleans. The French also brought diseases, guns and alcohol with them to the native populations. Warfare between the Native American tribes worsened after the French gave them guns as presents.