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  1. NEED TO KNOW: Unit 2 Political Behavior

  2. Chapter 4 US Political Culture

  3. Political Culture • American Political Culture • Liberty, Equality, Democracy, Civic Duty, Individual Responsibility • ADVERSARIAL • US vs. Other Nations • Stronger sense of Civic Duty and Civic Competence • Less voting, but MORE participation • The Culture War – Orthodox vs. Progressive • Political Efficacy • Internal vs. External • Political Tolerance?

  4. Chapter 7 Public Opinion

  5. Polling • Polls can MEASURE or SHAPE political opinions • 5 steps of process • Universe, Sample, Valid Questions, Interview, Analyze Data • Flaws or errors can invalidate poll data • Random Sampling is most accurate

  6. Political Socialization • Sources of Socialization • Family #1 • Work, school, friends, church, groups, etc • Trends • Gender Gap: Women more liberal • Race: white more conservative, most minorities liberal (not most Asians or Cubans) • Social Class: Poor more liberal • Religion: Protestant Conservative, Catholic & Jew Liberal • Region: South & Midwest Conservative, West & NE Liberal

  7. Political Ideology Political Spectrum Personal Freedom Community Property Personal Rights Multiculturalism Big Government State Control Personal Property Public Good Nationalism Small Government VS Left-Wing: Liberal Right-Wing: Conservative Center: Moderate

  8. Chapter 8 Political Participation

  9. Voting • VAP (Voting Age Population) vs. VEP (Voting Eligible Population) vs. Registered Voters • Extending Suffrage in US • Stage 1: No Property Requirements • Stage 2: 15th Amendment (African-Americans) • Stage 3: 19th Amendment (Women) • Stage 4: Voting Rights Act of 1965 (No Literacy Tests) & 24th Amendment (No Poll Taxes) • Stage 5: 26th Amendment (18 year olds)

  10. Voter Turnout • US v. World: Very low compared to other nations • Causes of the Problem? • Low Political Efficacy, Apathy, difficult registration process • Registration • Motor Voter Law (effects have not been great) • PARTICIPATION • Voting not only way to participate • US low in Voter turnout but HIGH in other participation (campaigning, petitions, contacting govt officials, etc)

  11. Chapter 10 Elections and Campaigns

  12. Campaigns • Issues • Position vs. Valence • Retrospective vs. Prospective Voting • Coalition-Building • Combining different groups to support a candidate • Base v. Swing Voters • Base: Traditional supporters of Party (More Extreme Right or Left) • Swing: Undecided (More Moderate)

  13. Campaign Finance • Going up each election • Sources of Funds • Individual Contributions, PAC money, Fed Govt • Independent Expenditures & SuperPACs • Reforms • Federal Campaign Act of 1974 – Created FEC • McCain-Feingold Act (BCRA) – Limits on Contributions • Buckley v. Valeo& Citizens United v. FEC undermine laws

  14. Elections • Presidential vs. Congressional • More people vote in Prez elections • Prez elections more competitive • Incumbency Advantage & Sophomore Surge • Much greater in HoR • Why? • Pork-Barrel Legislation • Franking Privilege • Name-Recognition • PAC Money • Gerrymandering • Gerrymandering • Drawing district lines for political advantage • Baker v. Carr, Wesberry v. Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims

  15. Presidential Elections • Primary: Intra-Party Election to get nomination • Open, Closed, Blanket • Delegates selected in Primaries, Nomination officially given at Convention • Election Day • 1st Tuesday after 1st Monday in November • Electoral College • # of electors = # of HoR + # of SEN • 270 (majority) to win • Election is by state (winner take all) • 4 times, winner of popular vote doesn’t become Prez • If no majority, HoR picks Prez

  16. Court Cases to Know Baker v. Carr Wesberry v. Sanders Reynolds v. Sims Buckley v. Valeo McConnell v. FEC Citizens United v. FEC