Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures
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Name & describe each of the 7 crystal structures. Solutions. Solution. Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent. Solute. Substance being dissolved Portion in lesser molar amount. Solvent. Substance doing the dissolving Portion in greatest molar amount.

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Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Solution

  • Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Solute

  • Substance being dissolved

  • Portion in lesser molar amount


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Solvent

  • Substance doing the dissolving

  • Portion in greatest molar amount


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Colloid

  • Slightly larger particles

  • Light passes & particles stay suspended


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Suspension

  • Even larger particles

  • Particles block or reflect light


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Tyndall Effect

  • Because light reflects off suspended particles, the light ray can be seen from the side


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Size Comparison

  • Solution < Colloid

  • Colloid < Suspension


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Soluble

  • When one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent)


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Solubility

  • The amount of one substance (solute) dissolved in another (solvent)


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

ConcentratedSolution

  • A solution with a relatively large amount of solute dissolved


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Concentration

  • The amount of solute dissolved into solution


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Dilute Solution

  • A solution with a relatively small amount of solute dissolved


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Saturated Solution

  • A solution with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in the solution


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Unsaturated Solution

  • A solution with less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Supersaturated Solution

  • A solution with greater than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Solution Measures

  • Concentration

  • Molarity

  • Molality

  • Mole Fraction


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Percent Solution

  • Mass of one portion per the total mass, all times 100 %

  • %soln = ma/mtotal x 100 %


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Molarity

  • Moles of solute per liter of solution

  • M = molessolute/Lsoln


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Molality

  • Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

  • mo = molessolute/kgsolvent


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Mole Fraction

  • Moles of one portion per total number of moles in the solution

  • X = molesa/molessoln



Drill calculate
Drill: Calculate: NaOH dissolved in water

  • mass of NaCl required to make 1.5 L of 2.0 M NaCl:


Calculate the molality of 69 g of c 2 h 5 oh dissolved in 500 0 ml of water
Calculate the molality of 69 g of C NaOH dissolved in water2H5OH dissolved in 500.0 mL of water


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Calculate the mole fraction of each portion when 92 g of C NaOH dissolved in water2H5OH dissolved in 144 mL of water


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Calculate the molality & mole fraction of a solution containing 46 g of C2H5OH dissolved in 1782 mL of water


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Colligative Properties containing 46 g of C

  • Properties dependent only on the concentration of particles in solution


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Examples containing 46 g of C

  • Vapor pressure

  • Boiling & Freezing points

  • Osmotic pressure


Drill
Drill: containing 46 g of C

  • Calculate the VP of a solution containing 36 % glucose (C6H12O6) in water at 29oC:

  • (VPwater = 30.0 mm Hg)


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Vapor Pressure containing 46 g of C

  • VPsolution = (VPsolvent)(Xsolvent)

  • X = mole fraction

  • VP = vapor pressure


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Boiling & Freezing containing 46 g of C

DT = imoK

DT = change in BP or FP

i = ionic activity

K = BP or FP constant


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Osmotic Pressure containing 46 g of C

p = iMRT

p = osmotic pressure

i = ionic activity

M = Molarity



Calculate bp fp of 60 0 g of naoh in 250 ml water k bp 0 512 o c mo k fp 1 86 o c mo
Calculate BP & FP of 60.0 g of NaOH in 250 mL water CKBP = 0.512oC/moKFP = -1.86oC/mo


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures
Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of NaOH dissolved in 250 mL solution at 27oC



Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of C4H8O4 dissolved in 750 mL solution at 27oC


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Clausius-Claperon Eq of C

(T2)(T1) P2

(T2 – T1) P1

Hv= R ln


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

VP of Cbenzene Temp (oC) 24.5 27 73.5 127Calculate Hv for benzene:


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Drill: Calculate BP & FP of 88 g of CO of C2 in 750 mL waterKBP = 0.512oC/moKFP = -1.86oC/mo


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 29.9 g of CoBr3 dissolved in 7500 mL solution at 27oC



Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

180 g C C3H8O was dissolved in 180 mL H2O at 27oC making a 1.5 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.



Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

300 g C make 250 mL of 0.40 M Pb(NO3H6NF was dissolved in 500 g C6H12O at 27oC making a 0.800 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.



Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

A 1.2 g/cm Pb(NO3 aqueous solution is 20.0 % by mass NaOH at 27oC.

Calculate: X, mo, M, p, & MP


Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures

Calculate the molecular mass of a covalent compound dissolved in an aqueous solution to make it 25 % by mass when it boils at 102.048oC