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262-277. Changing American Population. Population Increase. Reasons: Booming agricultural economy of the west Cities became centers of trade ( p . 263 shows examples) Improvements in public health Birth rate was lower Death rate was far lower, allowing for population increase Immigration

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population increase
Population Increase
  • Reasons:
    • Booming agricultural economy of the west
      • Cities became centers of trade (p. 263 shows examples)
    • Improvements in public health
      • Birth rate was lower
      • Death rate was far lower, allowing for population increase
    • Immigration
      • Growth of cities was dramatic between 1840-1860
      • P. 263 shows city growth examples
  • A defense of native-born people and a hostility to foreign-born
  • Also a desire to slow immigration
  • Examples:
    • Nativists would say that new immigrants were inferior to older Americans
    • Saw them as about the same as Native Americans
    • They would say that immigrants were socially unfit
    • Some said immigrants stole jobs from workforce
small parties
Small Parties
  • Native American Party: 1837
    • Anti-immigration group
    • Held their own convention in 1845
  • Know-Nothings: 1845-1850
    • First called “Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”
    • Banned Catholics from holding public office, restrictive naturalization laws, literacy tests for voting among their demands
small parties1
Small Parties
  • Know-Nothings led to American Party in 1852 in the west
  • They actually won control of MA state gov’t in 1854, won large number of seats in PA and NY
  • This was the peak of their power
transportation communications technology
Transportation, Communications, Technology

Canal Age:

We have discussed this already, at great length! If you do not know this information, read it!

Pages 269-271

transportation communications technology1
Transportation, Communications, Technology
  • Early Railroads:
    • 1804: inventors had been experimenting with steam engines for land vehicles
    • 1820: first locomotive is run around a track in NJ
    • 1825: first RR line opened inEngland
    • First company: Baltimore and Ohio, 1830
    • By 1836, 1,000+ miles of track had been laid in 11 states
transportation communications technology2
Transportation, Communications, Technology
  • Railroads:
    • Were short
    • Connected water routes
    • No linkage of one RR company to another
    • Track sizes (gauges) were not uniform
    • Schedules did not match
    • Constant wrecks!
    • Slow improvements in 1830’s
transportation communications technology3
Transportation, Communications, Technology
  • Triumph of RR:
    • By 1860, there was almost 30,000 miles of track
    • Most was in northeast but reached far and wide
    • See map on page 273!!
consolidation of rr s
Consolidation of RR’s
  • Linkage of lines to make RR lines longer
  • Lots of examples on page 272
  • Lines would divert traffic from Erie Canal and Mississippi River
  • RR’s helped weaken the connection between the northwest and the south
how t o p ay for rr boom
How To Pay for RR Boom
  • Several sources:
    • Private American investors
    • RR companies borrowed large sums of $$$
    • Local governments, states, counties, cities, towns
    • Federal gov’t
    • Congressional grants to aid RR’s in 11 states by 1860
innovations in communications and journalism
Innovations in Communications and Journalism
  • Telegraph:
    • Samuel Morse, 1844
    • Transmitted from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.
    • Low cost system of communication
    • 50,000 miles of wire connected by 1860 coast to coast
innovations in communications and journalism1
Innovations in Communications and Journalism
  • Steam cylinder rotary press
  • Associated Press
commerce and industry
Commerce and Industry
  • Things to consider: (p. 275)
    • Retail distribution of goods changed
    • Limited partnerships remained, but growth of corporations began here
    • Limited liability
    • Credit was a way to borrow, but bank did not have enough equity to support the borrowing
    • Bank failures were frequent
rise of the factory
Rise of the Factory
  • By far the biggest economic development of the mid-19th century
  • Started with textile industry (discussed)
  • Shoe industry in MA
  • Total value of manufactured goods rose from almost $500 million in 1840 to $2 billion in 1860
industry in the northeast
Industry in the Northeast
  • Over half of the “factories” were in the northeast
  • Those “factories” produced over 2/3 of the nation’s manufactured goods
  • Almost ¾ of the people working in manufacturing were employed in N.E. and Mid-Atlantic states
technological advances
Technological Advances
  • Turret lathe, milling machine, precision grinding machine, sewing machine
  • Interchangeable parts: Eli Whitney and Simeon North
    • Affected watches and clocks, locomotives, steam engines, farm tools, bicycles, sewing machines, typewriters, cash registers, automobile in upcoming years
technological advances1
Technological Advances
  • Patents:
  • Charles Goodyear: vulcanizing rubber
  • Elias Howe: sewing machine, which Singer improved
water power still
Water Power: still?
  • Natural waterfalls could be channeled to provide power for the mills
  • Factories would close if water was frozen in winter
  • That is one reason factories looked for other power: to be open year-round!
energy sources
Energy Sources
  • Wood, Coal, Petroleum (later), Water
  • Coal:
    • Replacing wood and water power as fuel
    • Mostly in PA, near Pittsburgh