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The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs. Chapter 9. Psychoactive Drugs. A drug which alters a person’s experiences or consciousness Can cause intoxications A state in which sometimes unpredictable physical and emotional changes occur. Addictive Behavior.

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psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs
  • A drug which alters a person’s experiences or consciousness
  • Can cause intoxications
    • A state in which sometimes unpredictable physical and emotional changes occur.
addictive behavior
Addictive Behavior
  • Habitsthat have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative effect on a persons health.
  • Addiction is the habitual use of a drug produced chemical changes in the user’s body.
  • Drug Addiction (four important characteristics)
    • Compulsive desire
    • Need to increase the dosage
    • Harmful effects to the individual
    • Harm to society
  • Drug Habituation (habit)
characteristics of addictive behavior
Characteristics of Addictive Behavior

Reinforcement

Compulsion or Craving

Loss of Control

Escalation

Negative Consequences

development of addiction
Development of Addiction
  • Often starts to bring pleasure or to avoid pain.
  • Harmless or even beneficial if done in moderation
  • Examples of addictive behaviors:
    • Gambling
    • Compulsive Exercising
    • Work Addiction
    • Sex and love addiction
    • Compulsive buying or shopping
    • Internet addiction
  • Characteristics of people with addition
drug use abuse and dependence
Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence
  • Drugs are chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body
    • Prescription medicines
    • Over-the-counter substances
      • Caffeine
      • Tobacco
      • Alcohol
    • Illegal substances
  • The Drug Tradition
drug abuse and dependence
Drug Abuse and Dependence
  • The APA’s Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – authoritative reference
  • Abuse
    • APA definition
      • Failure to fulfill major responsibilities
      • Drug use in situations that are hazardous
      • Drug related legal problems
      • Drug use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems
    • Physically dependent may or may not present
dependence
Dependence
  • Substance dependence

1. Developing tolerance to the substance

2. Experiencing withdrawal

3. Taking in larger amounts

4. Expressing a persistent desire to cut down

5. Spending great deal of time obtaining

6. Giving up or reducing important activities

7. Continual usage even with recognition of a problem

  • Diagnosed with at least 3 or more symptoms during a 12-month period
who uses drugs
Who uses drugs?
  • All income and education levels
  • All ethnic groups
  • All ages
  • Young people are at a higher risk
  • Males (Twice as likely)
  • Troubled adolescent
  • Thrill-seeker
  • Dysfunctional families
  • Peer group or family that accepts
  • Low Socioeconomical status
  • Dating young
why do people use drugs
Why Do People Use Drugs?

Experiment

Escape

Reliance

Magnification of residence

risk factors for dependence
Risk Factors for Dependence
  • Psychological risks
    • Difficulty in controlling impulses
    • Strong need for excitement
    • Feelings of rejection
    • Hostility
    • Aggression
    • Anxiety
    • Mental illness
    • Dual (co-occurring disorders)
risk factors for dependence13
Risk Factors for Dependence
  • Social Factors
    • Growing up in a family with drug abuse
    • Peer group
    • Poverty
other risks of drug use
Other Risks of Drug Use

Intoxication

Side effects

Unknown Drug constituents

Risks associated with injection drug use

Legal consequences

how drugs affect the body
How Drugs Affect the Body
  • Changes in Brain chemistry
  • Drug factors:
    • Pharmacological properties
    • Dose-Response function
    • Time-action function
    • Drug use history
    • Method of use
  • User Factors
  • Social Factors
representative psychoactive drugs
Representative Psychoactive Drugs
  • Opioids (narcotics)
    • Natural or synthetic
      • Opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine,. Hydrocodone, oxycodone, meperidine, and fentanly
    • Induce euphoria
    • Methods of administration
      • Injection, snorting, sniffing or smoking
    • Symptoms of overdose
psychoactive drugs19
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Central Nervous System Depressants
    • Slow down the overall activity of the CNS
    • Sedative-hypnotics
    • Types
    • Effects
      • Effects on the body
    • Medical uses
    • From use to abuse
    • Overdosing
central nervous system stimulants
Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Speed up the activity of the nervous or muscular system
    • Cocaine
      • Methods of use
      • Effects
      • Abuse and Dependence
      • Use during pregnancy
central nervous system stimulants21
Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Amphetamines
      • Effects
      • From use to abuse
        • State dependence
      • Dependence
        • psychosis
    • Ritalin
    • Ephedrine
    • Caffeine
marijuana
Marijuana
  • Cannabis Sativa
  • THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
  • Short term effects and uses
    • Depersonalization
  • Long-term effects and uses
    • Respiratory damage
  • Dependence
hallucinogens
Hallucinogens
  • Altered state of consciousness, perceptions, feelings and thoughts
  • LSD, Mascaline, DMT, MDMA, Ketamine, PCP (angel dust), and certain mushrooms
    • Altered states of consciousness
    • Impact on proprioception
  • Synesthia
  • Flashbacks
inhalants
Inhalants
  • Nearly all inhalants produce effects similar to those of anesthetics, slow down the bodies functions
  • Volatile solvents
  • Nitrates
  • Anesthetics
  • Methods of use
    • Sniffing
    • Snorting
    • “Bagging”
    • “Huffing”
drug use the decades ahead
Drug Use: The Decades Ahead

Drug research

Drugs, society, and families

Legalization

Drug Testing

treatment for drug dependence
Treatment for Drug Dependence
  • Medication-assisted treatment
    • Drug substitution
  • Treatment centers
  • Self-help groups and peer counseling
    • AA
    • NA
  • Harm reduction strategies
  • Codependency
preventing drug abuse
Preventing Drug Abuse
  • Governmental attempts
  • Anti-drug education programs
  • Indirect approaches
    • Young people’s self-esteem
    • Improve academic skills
    • Increase recreational opportunities
  • Direct approaches
    • Information about the adverse effects
    • Peer pressure resistance
the role of drugs in your life
The Role of Drugs in Your Life
  • Issues
    • What are the risks involved?
    • Is using the drug compatible with your goals?
    • What are your ethical beliefs about drug use?
    • What are the financial costs?
    • Are you trying to solve deeper problem?
what to do instead of drugs
What to Do Instead of Drugs

Bored?

Stressed?

Shy or lonely?

Feeling low on self-esteem?

Depressed or anxious?

Apathetic or lethargic?

Searching for meaning?

Afraid to say no?

Still feeling peer pressure?