slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 52

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 84 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction. Section 1: Cellular Growth. Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis. Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation. Cellular Reproduction. Chapter 9. 9.1 Cellular Growth. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume. Cellular Reproduction. Chapter 9. 9.1 Cellular Growth.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction' - alaina


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Section 1: Cellular Growth

Section2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

slide2

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

Ratio of Surface Area to Volume

slide3

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

  • As cell size INCREASES, its volume
  • INCREASES much faster than its surface area
  • Two Formulas

SA = 2(LW) + 2(LH) + 2(HW)

V = L x W x H

Example: Cell A: Side= 1mm

SA = 6mm2

V = 1mm3

What happens if sides increases to 2mm?

slide4

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

  • As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area.
  • The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products.
slide5

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

Transport of Substances

  • Substances move by diffusion or by motor proteins.
  • Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient.
  • Small cells maintain more efficient transport systems.
slide6

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

Cellular Communications

  • The need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size.
  • Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions.
slide7

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

  • Our entire body is made of cells-these are called body cells
  • Inside each cell is a nucleus (“control center” and inside the nucleus are the chromosomes (bundles of DNA)
  • How many chromosomes do humans have?
  • There are 46 chromosomes inside EACH cell
    • Exception to this rule is the sperm and egg (gametes) only have 23 chromosomes
  • Cells must reproduce themselves at some point in their life. They do this by dividing in half to produce two new cells.
slide8

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Cell Cycle

  • Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large.
  • It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal certain injuries.
  • Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle.
slide9

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

  • Interphase is the stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates.
  • Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.
  • Cytokinesisis the method by which a cell’s cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
slide10

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Stages of Interphase

  • The first stage of interphase, G1
  • The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.
  • Cells are performing their assigned tasks, metabolizing, synthesizing, etc.
slide11

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Second Stage of Interphase, S

  • The cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division. (DNA synthesizes)
    • DNA goes from 2 arms to 4 arms
slide12

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Third Stage of Interphase, G2

  • 2nd growth stage
  • The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
slide13

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

  • Mitosis
    • Body cell reproduction
    • A cell divides into 2 new “daughter” cells and the cell cycle starts over
    • Four Stages of Mitosis = PMAT
slide14

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

The Stages of Mitosis

  • Prophase
  • DNA organizes itself
  • The cell’s chromatin tightens.
  • Sister chromatids are attached at the centromere.
  • Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
slide15

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

  • The nuclear envelope seems to disappear.
  • Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids.
slide16

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Metaphase

  • Sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell.
  • They line up in the middle of the cell.
slide17

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Anaphase

  • The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten.
  • The sister chromatids separate.
  • The chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell.
slide18

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Telophase

  • The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax.
  • Two new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear.
  • The spindle apparatus disassembles.
slide19

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • Cell membrane moves inward to create TWO daughter cells- each with its own nucleus and identical chromosomes
    • In humans each cell would have 46 chromosomes (diploid amount)
  • In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm.
  • In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell plate, forms.
slide20

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Normal Cell Cycle

  • Different cyclin/CDK combinations signal other activities, including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and nuclear division throughout the cell cycle.
slide21

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Quality Control Checkpoints

  • The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong.
  • Spindle checkpoints also have been identified in mitosis.
slide22

Cellular Reproduction

  • Cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normal

cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer

  • Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells.
slide23

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Causes of Cancer

  • The changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations.
  • Various environmental factors can affect the occurrence of cancer cells.
slide24

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Apoptosis

  • Programmed cell death
  • Cells going through apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process.
slide25

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Stem Cells

  • Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
slide26

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Embryonic Stem Cells

  • An embryo is an organism’s early prebirth stage of development
  • After fertilization, the resulting mass of cells divides repeatedly until there are about 100–150 cells. These cells have not become specialized.
slide27

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Adult Stem Cells

  • Found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue
  • Less controversial because the adult stem cells can be obtained with the consent of their donor
slide28

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

Chapter Resource Menu

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Formative Test Questions

Chapter Assessment Questions

Standardized Test Practice

biologygmh.com

Glencoe Biology Transparencies

Image Bank

Vocabulary

Animation

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

cdq 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CDQ 1

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is the first phase of mitosis?

  • interphase
  • prophase
  • metaphase
  • telophase
cdq 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

During what phase do the sister chromatids

line up in the middle of the cell?

  • interphase
  • metaphase
  • anaphase
  • telophase
cdq 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CDQ 3

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?

  • cytokinesis
  • interphase
  • apoptosis
  • mitosis
slide32

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 1

9.1 Formative Questions

Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and

expel waste products?

  • larger cells
  • smaller cells
  • cells with lower surface area to volume ratio
  • cells shaped like a cube
slide33

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 2

9.1 Formative Questions

At what stage does a cell spend most of

its life?

  • cytokinesis
  • interphase
  • mitosis
  • synthesis
slide34

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 3

9.1 Formative Questions

What happens in the cell during cytokinesis?

  • The cell grows and carries out normal functions.
  • The cell copies its DNA and forms chromosomes.
  • The cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.
  • The cell’s cytoplasm divides.
slide35

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 4

9.2 Formative Questions

In what stage of the cell cycle does the

cell’s replicated genetic material separate?

  • cytokinesis
  • interphase
  • mitosis
  • prophase
slide36

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 5

9.2 Formative Questions

Which diagram shows anaphase?

slide37

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

Chapter 9

FQ 6

9.2 Formative Questions

At the end of mitosis the nuclear material is

divided and two new cells have formed.

  • true
  • false
slide38

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 7

9.3 Formative Questions

What are the “key and ignition” that start the

various activities in the cell cycle?

  • chromatin and chromosomes
  • cyclin and CDKs
  • microtubules and spindle fibers
  • protein and ribosomes
slide39

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 8

9.3 Formative Questions

Which of these cancer-causing substances or

agents is impossible to avoid completely?

  • chemicals such as asbestos
  • food and drinks that the FDA warns may contain carcinogens
  • tobacco and second-hand smoke
  • ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
slide40

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 9

9.3 Formative Questions

What is the term for the programmed death

of cells that are damaged beyond repair or

have harmful changes in their DNA?

  • apoptosis
  • carcinogens
  • cytokinesis
  • mitosis
fq 10

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

FQ 10

9.3 Formative Questions

Which cells are not locked into becoming

one particular kind of cell and are capable

of developing into specialized tissues?

  • apoptotic cells
  • cancer cells
  • prokaryotic cells
  • stem cells
caq 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CAQ 1

Chapter Assessment Questions

This cell has completed what stage of mitosis?

  • anaphase
  • interphase
  • metaphase
  • telophase
caq 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CAQ 2

Chapter Assessment Questions

What term is used to describe programmed

cell death?

  • apoptosis
  • anaphase
  • necrosis
  • cyclins
caq 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

CAQ 3

Chapter Assessment Questions

What is the role of cyclins in a cell?

  • to control the movement of microtubules
  • to signal for the cell to divide
  • to stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membrane
  • to cause the nucleolus to disappear
stp 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

C

B

A

Chapter 9

STP 1

Standardized Test Practice

Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area

to volume?

stp 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

STP 2

Standardized Test Practice

At what stage of interphase does the cell take inventory and make sure it is ready for the division of its nucleus?

  • G1
  • S
  • G2
  • M
stp 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

STP 3

Standardized Test Practice

Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells

during the cell cycle?

  • formation of a cell plate
  • formation of microtubules
  • formation of a cleavage furrow at the equator of the cell
  • movement of chromosomes to the poles of the cell
stp 4

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

Chapter 9

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple changes in DNA are required to change an abnormal cell into a cancer cell.

  • true
  • false
stp 5

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter 9

STP 5

Standardized Test Practice

Which is not a condition that can result in cancer?

  • a failure in the control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle
  • a failure in the repair systems that fix changes or damage to DNA
  • a failure of the spindle fibers to move chromosomes during mitosis
  • mutations or changes in segments of DNA that control protein production
slide50

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

Vocabulary

Section 1

cell cycle

interphase

mitosis

cytokinesis

chromosome

chromatin

slide51

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

Vocabulary

Section 2

prophase

sister chromatid

centromere

spindle apparatus

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

slide52

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 9

Vocabulary

Section 3

cyclin

cyclin-dependent kinase

cancer

carcinogen

apoptosis

stem cell