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Cellular Reproduction. Chromosomes. Contain genetic information – DNA DNA is arranged in segments called genes Determine characteristics, or traits Humans have 46 chromosomes in their cells – 23 from each parent. Chromosomes.

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chromosomes
Chromosomes
  • Contain genetic information – DNA
  • DNA is arranged in segments called genes
    • Determine characteristics, or traits
  • Humans have 46 chromosomes in their cells – 23 from each parent
chromosomes1
Chromosomes
  • Exist as chromatin prior to cell division - relaxed form of DNA in the cell’s nucleus
chromosomes2
Chromosomes

Centromere: at the center of the chromosome where the sister chromatids attach

Sister chromatids: Each half of the X, contains identical copies of DNA

the cell cycle
The Cell Cycle
  • Cells reproduce by growing and dividing
  • WHY??
    • Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large
    • To replace other cells
    • For asexual reproduction
    • To allow multicellular organisms to grow

3 Main Stages:

Interphase

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

interphase
Interphase
  • G1: The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA. Occurs immediately after the cell divides.
  • S: The cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division.
  • G2: The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
mitosis
Mitosis
  • Process that divides the nucleus of one cell into two nuclei
    • Purpose is to create two daughter cells with identical genetic information
    • Each daughter cell receives the exact same # and type of chromosomes, it’s like photocopying the cell!
prophase
Prophase
  • Beginning phase, the longest phase
  • Chromatin tightens, or coils, into chromosomes
  • In this phase the chromosomes are shaped like an X
  • Nuclear envelope disappears
  • Centrioles migrate to poles
  • Spindle fibers form
metaphase
Metaphase
  • Changing phase, one of the shortest stages
  • Chromosomes are pulled to center of cell and lined up
  • Ensures there are accurate copies of the chromosomes
anaphase
Anaphase
  • Anew phase
  • The spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart into two identical chromosomes
  • The chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
Telophase
  • Ending phase
  • Chromosomes reach the poles of the cell and begin to unwind
  • Two new nuclear membranes begin to form
  • Nuclei reappear
cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
  • Towards the end of mitosis, the cell undergoes cytokinesis
  • This divides the cytoplasm
  • The cytoplasm is pinched (the furrow)
  • Creates two new cells
the cell cycle3
The Cell Cycle

Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Cytokinesis

IPray More At The Church!

cell cycle regulation
Cell Cycle Regulation
  • The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong.
abnormal cell cycle
Abnormal Cell Cycle
  • CANCER: the uncontrolled growth and division of cells
  • Cancer cell can kill an organism by crowding out normal cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function
cancer
Cancer

The cancer cell cycle is much faster than the normal cell cycle:

Chicken stomach cells

Interphase: 16 minutes

Prophase: 15 minutes

Metaphase: 2 minutes

Anaphase: 1 minute

Telophase: 3 minutes

  • Interphase: 120 minutes
  • Prophase: 60 minutes
  • Metaphase: 10 minutes
  • Anaphase: 3 minutes
  • Telophase: 12 minutes
causes
Causes

The changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations.

  • Inherited
  • Carcinogens
  • Radiation
apoptosis
Apoptosis
  • Programmed cell death
  • Cells going through this apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process
stem cells
Stem Cells
  • Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions