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Internationalism and Health. Lecture:. Health and the Doctrine of Development. Aaron Pascal Mauck MA, PhD. 3/14/2013. DATE. LECTURER. The Doctrine of Development Economic Development and Health WHO Development Policies, 1948-1970 WHO Development Policies in Transition, 1970-1978.

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Internationalism and health
Internationalism and Health


Health and the Doctrine of Development

Aaron Pascal Mauck MA, PhD




  • The Doctrine of Development

  • Economic Development and Health

  • WHO Development Policies, 1948-1970

  • WHO Development Policies in Transition, 1970-1978

Development is broadly linked to modernization theory, which tends to posit

A single, generally unidirectional process of social evolution away from

Traditional societies towards modern ones. Modernity is often associated

With positive political, social, and economic goals.

Development became an explicit international goal in the aftermath of WWII

As a strategy for rebuilding the global economy, modernizing post-colonial

Nations, and pursuing the Cold War

Development policies have often focused on economic development as the

key to other forms of development. Health policies have played a secondary but

important role in development models through their links to the economy.

From the forties through the sixties, the state played a large role in promoting

Development through support of industrialization. By the eighties,

market- centered models neoliberalPolicies stressing comparative advantage

began to replace state-centered models.

“More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate, they are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these people ... I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life… What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing ... Greater production is the key to prosperity and peace. And the key to greater production is a wider and more vigorous application of modem scientific and technical knowledge”

Harry Truman

Economic development was facilitated by the creation

of national and international organizations with explicit

development goals, largely related to the reorganization

Of land, labor, and capital along “modern” lines

World Bank was established in 1944 with the official goal

Of alleviating poverty. Its initial focus was on European

Recovery, but shifted to economically developing

Countries after the introduction of the Marshall Plan.

From 1948-1968, World Bank loans were relatively small

And were linked to infrastructural improvements. After

1968 the loan program expanded, and shifted towards

Social services and other economic sectors

The WHO was created in affiliation with the

UN, and like the UN had an explicitly

International approach designed to control the

Impact of national politics in shaping its agenda

The constitution of the World Health Organization

was signed by all 61 countries of the UN by

1946. The first meeting of the World Health

Assembly took place in 1948

The WHO incorporated both the Office International d'HygiènePublique and the

League of Nations Health Organization , but developed an agenda of disease

Control and eradication based on the advances that had taken place in WWII

Central to early WHO activities were global activities to control infectious diseases

Like gonorrhea, syphilis, and tuberculosis, and parasitic diseases like malaria.

This reflected the presence of new tools: antibiotics and pesticides.

G. Brock Chisholm , the first president, adopted an explicitly apolitical stance, and

Worked to maintain membership even with the temporary attrition of Eastern Bloc

Countries between 1953 and 1958.