Quick Quiz • Describe the three stages of learning, giving practical examples of performers at each stage
6 Psychological factors affecting performance Skill acquisition Guidance and Feedback
Learning Objectives Learning Objective: Understand the use of different types of guidance and feedback and their effects on performance Learning Outcomes: All: Describe the types of guidance and feedback Most: Explain, using sporting examples, the effectiveness of the different types of guidance and feedback on performance Some:Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the types of guidance and feedback
Key Terms • Verbal guidance • Visual guidance • Manual guidance • Mechanical guidance • Intrinsic feedback • Extrinsic feedback • Positive feedback • Negative feedback • Knowledge of performance • Knowledge of results
Key Terms - Guidance • Verbal guidance - Guidance that you hear e.g. a gymnast on a trampoline will hear the next move after a verbal instruction from their coach. • Visual guidance - Guidance that you can see e.g. a demonstration of a pass in football • Manual guidance - Supporting the movement through touch. A coach may support a somersault in gymnastics with the correct hand placement • Mechanical guidance - Use of a device to support the performer such as a float for swimming • Intrinsic feedback • Extrinsic feedback • Positive feedback • Negative feedback • Knowledge of performance • Knowledge of results
Key Terms - Feedback • Intrinsic feedback - The feel of the skill, if it felt right.Feedback that is from within the performer • Extrinsic feedback - Verbal feedback from other people like coaches, team mates and parents • Positive feedback - Feedback given when the correct skill is performed. Used as a good motivating tool. • Negative feedback - Feedback given to correct a skilled movement which was not correct. information must be provided as to how to improve the skill. • Knowledge of performance - Based on the quality of overall performance e.g. how many times you made a good pass • Knowledge of results - Based on the outcome of the game (win or lose) e.g score
Verbal Guidance • A teacher telling a pupil how to do a skill step by step, or giving them advice on how to improve • Advantages –can be given immediately and quickly. Goo for fine tuning a skill or developing skilled movements. Can be motivating and can, along with visual, develop a better understanding of the skills • Disadvantages – might be the wrong information given. Can lead to misunderstanding/confusion. Cannot easily create a mental picture of movement requirements.
Visual Guidance • A coach demonstrating how to perform a skill • Advantages – good for beginners because they can easily visualise the correct movement skill. Easier to remember and to form a technical model to copy. Quick and Effective • Disadvantages – if demo is incorrect then the wrong movement patterns are learned. Difficult to get the feel or a kinaesthetic sense of the skill. May be too complicated for effective understanding.
Manual Guidance • A coach supporting a performer with a skill • Advantages – they can reduce fear in dangerous situations. They can be safer for the performer and therefore raise confidence. This method of guidance can give some idea of the feeling (kinaesthesis) of the movement • Disadvantages – it could give unrealistic ‘feeling’ of the motion. Performer becomes over-reliant on support and therefore does not learn to perform themselves. It can be dangerous as mechanical guidance malfunctions or physical guidance is weak or inappropriate.
Mechanical Guidance • A piece of equipment used to support a performer in a skill • Advantages – they can reduce fear in dangerous situations. They can be safer for the performer and therefore raise confidence. This method of guidance can give some idea of the feeling (kinaesthesis) of the movement • Disadvantages – it could give unrealistic ‘feeling’ of the motion. Performer becomes over-reliant on support and therefore does not learn to perform themselves. It can be dangerous as mechanical guidance malfunctions or physical guidance is weak or inappropriate.
Intrinsic Feedback • Continuous feedback that comes from within the performer. • E.g. a swimmer diving off the blocks feels that their legs are straight • Advantages – this feedback occurs as the movement is performed and is, therefore readily available and movements can often be corrected or altered immediately. The performer does not have to rely on others and if the performer is in the autonomous stage of learning then this feedback is likely to be accurate and, due to the experience of the performer, it can be interpreted correctly and lead to improved performance. • Disadvantages – it may not lead to accurate interpretation if the performer is in the cognitive stage of ir unable to interpret the information provided by the body. Some performers are able to feel and interpret movements more effectively than others, depending on their sensory effectiveness; in other words, some performers’ senses are more ‘tuned in’ and effective than others. Some performers may interpret intrinsic feedback incorrectly and therefore performance may deteriorate.
Extrinsic Feedback • Feedback that comes from external sources of sound or vision such as a coach telling you how you did or seeing a goal being scored. • E.g. a hockey play seeing the ball go into the back of the net, or a coach telling you how well you played
Knowledge of Performance • Information about how well the movement is being executed • E.g. a coach telling you how good your knee raise was in a sprint This feedback is about the pattern of movement that has taken, or is taking place. IT is normally associated with external feedback but can be gained through kinaesthetic awareness, especially if the performer is highly skilled and knows what a good performance feels like.
Knowledge of Results • Terminal feedback that gives information about the end result • E.g. the score in a football match, or your score in a trampolining routine This feedback is external, and can come from the performer seeing the result of their response or from another person, usually the coach or teacher. It is extremely important for the performer to know what the result of their action has been. There can be very little learning without this type of feedback, especially in the early stages of skill acquisition.
Positive Feedback • Reinforces skill learning and gives information about a successful outcome • E.g. a teacher saying well done when you’ve passed the ball correctly • Advantages – positive feedback can lead to positive reinforcement and therefore enable the correct S-R bond to be formed. This type of feedback can be extremely motivating, especially for cognitive stage learners. It can help to build self-esteem and confidence. • Disadvantages – if undeserved then the performer may be building inappropriate S-R bonds and therefore performance may deteriorate. Some performers do not respond will to too much praise and may ignore the feedback and this may hinder performance and learning.
Negative Feedback • Information about an unsuccessful outcome, which can be used to build strategies that are more successful. • E.g. a coach telling a badminton player that their grip is incorrect and how to change it. • Advantages – some performers are motivated well by negative feedback and it may result in a more determined performer. The performer will also be clear about which aspects of the performance requires improvement. This type of feedback is more suited to autonomous learners who require further refinement of their skills • Disadvantages – the negative aspect of this feedback can be demotivating to the performer, especially if they are in the cognitive stage or take criticism badly. This type of feedback may be detrimental to the learning process if the feedback is unfounded or inaccurate.