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Rich Talk about Text PowerPoint Presentation
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Rich Talk about Text

Rich Talk about Text

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Rich Talk about Text

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    1. Rich Talk about Text P. David Pearson Graduate School of Education University of California, Berkeley

    2. Reminders from Scott Close Reading What do you think? What makes you think so? Teachers, like readers, develop both a text base and a situation model for the PD we offer to them. Hence the variability in uptake and implementation. Stay the course, just in time feedback Teaching for Cognitive Engagement

    3. www.scienceandliteracy.org Look for presentations by me Also a site to learn more about the work I am doing on science and literacy with primary grade kids.

    4. Some assumptions You have in place a program of comprehension instruction for skills and strategies Reciprocal Teaching Transactional Strategies Instruction You have taken a position on what sort of assessments you are you going to use to assess students growth in reading I like performance assessments--open ended, but

    5. This is a goal For every child In every classroom In every grade Being satisfied with good decoding and word recognition is not enough Being satisfied with great fluency is not enough It is comprehension, understanding, enjoyment, and insight for every child.

    6. Talk about Text An environment rich in high-quality talk about text. teacher-to-student student-to-student talk. Many levels Text base: clarifying and connecting Situation model: relating, interpreting Critique and evaluation This should involve both teacher-to-student and student-to-student talk. It should include discussions of text processing at a number of levels, from clarifying basic material stated in the text to drawing interpretations of text material, to relating the text to other texts, experiences, and reading goals. This should involve both teacher-to-student and student-to-student talk. It should include discussions of text processing at a number of levels, from clarifying basic material stated in the text to drawing interpretations of text material, to relating the text to other texts, experiences, and reading goals.

    7. We have pretty good models and research on this score

    8. Murphy et al Meta-analysis Whats the underlying theory of all of these interventions?

    9. Summary findings Pre-post effects are more impressive than comparative effects.

    10. Summary findings Effects are more impressive on researcher designed than distal measures.

    11. Summary findings Stronger effects on talk than comprehension.

    12. Summary findings Some evidence of you get what you pay for, especially for critical thinking.

    13. Summary findings Seems to be more important for average and low achievers

    14. Summary findings Time matters: longer is better

    15. Research failing Some dont measure comprehension Dont measure many types of comprehension

    16. A great example from New Standards

    17. Toughest Problem: Promoting higher level talk about text In our CIERA work, the good news is that when we see it, it improves learning and achievement, but The bad news is that we dont see it very much

    18. Supporting talk about text

    19. Same teacher--more scaffolding

    20. Different Teacher--More Novice Kids: Even more scaffolding

    21. The nature and amount of scaffolding is a matter of being responsive

    22. Gradual Release of Responsibility

    23. Changing Teacher Roles

    26. Questions for Stories Read the text for the big ideas Generate some probes to get at them Go from general to specific So what is important about this story? So is this story more about the plot or the characters? So what does this story tell us about how human beings look out for one another? Go for Response before Comprehension Go for comprehension to support response or claims: facts in the service of claims about the worldAccountable Talk Work for a unified understanding of plot, character, feelings, motives. Somewhere Somebody Wanted a Problem Solved

    27. Generating Questions for Expository Pieces Read the text Record what you think are the big ideas Read it again, looking for connections among the big ideas* Generate a set of questions that will get you the big ideas and the connections between them.

    28. Talk, Skills and Strategies Conversations about stories and informational texts can be a context in which a lot of good strategy instruction CAN occur, if we are willing to seize teachable moments (just in time teaching) to show kids how to use strategies to solve problems and make text sensible. Thats the genius of Instructional Conversations Thats what happens in good RT conversations.

    29. Contextualizing what I have said A good model Solid instruction Thoughtful assessment Supportive instructional environment

    30. What that supportive context can do...

    31. This is a Formula for a Renaissance (maybe a revival?)

    32. Opportunity A great deal of time spent actually reading: As with decoding, all the explicit instruction in the world will not make strong readers unless accompanied by lots of experience applying their knowledge, skills, and strategies during actual reading.As with decoding, all the explicit instruction in the world will not make strong readers unless accompanied by lots of experience applying their knowledge, skills, and strategies during actual reading.

    33. The nature of texts The texts are interesting and comprehensible and sufficiently varied so that all students can find texts to relate to (interest and motivation). Daily, students read texts that are personally interesting and easy to read. Why? So that students can consolidate their learning of skills and strategies. Also on a daily basis, students read, with teacher support, more challenging texts. Why? In order to stretch their knowledge and skill repertoire. Establish tomorrows prior knowledge.

    34. The nature of texts in effective programs 1. While common sense suggests that some of these texts should allow students to apply the decoding and comprehension skills they are learning, there is precious little evidence to support the creation and use of special instructional texts for this purpose.

    35. Opportunity The big ruckus from the National Reading Panel Should we promote independent reading?

    36. What people think NRP says Dont provide time for independent reading.

    37. What NRP really says The evidence is too sketchy to draw any conclusion one way or another About school-based programs to promote independent reading DEAR SSSR

    38. My own view The lack of credible evidence one way or another is no basis for getting rid of programs that have other virtues Is reading the only phenomenon in human experience that doesnt get better with practice If you do it, do it right and do it well Make sure kids have things to read Make sure kids DO read Provide incentives and support

    39. Comprehension Activities in K and early 1 In the context of teacher read alouds Why? Texts that merit the sort of engagement and depth of thinking we want to promote. Finesse the decoding issue Warning: You cant stay there forever. Must get to texts kids read themselves

    40. Authenticity Experience reading real texts for real reasons. In order to become strong, flexible, and devoted comprehenders of text, students need experience reading texts beyond those designed solely for reading instruction, and experience reading text with a clear and compelling purpose in mind.In order to become strong, flexible, and devoted comprehenders of text, students need experience reading texts beyond those designed solely for reading instruction, and experience reading text with a clear and compelling purpose in mind.

    41. Beware the textoid problem When we select texts that have been especially written to permit some sort of skill activity We run the risk of reifying these texts Making real something that isnt They only exist on tests and workbook materials designed to get you ready to take the tests.

    42. How are Sue and Ellens grandmothers alike? They both love their granddaughters They both use e-mail They both live on a farm How are they different? They live in different places They have different color hair They are different ages Sues grandmother lives on a farm. Ellens grandmother lives in the city. Sues grandmother, who just turned 55, phones Sue every month. Ellens grandmother, who is also 55, sends Ellen e-mails several times a week. Both grandmothers love their granddaughters.

    43. Range Experience reading at least the range of text genres that we wish students to comprehend. Substantial experience reading and writing it. No automatic transfer across genres Students will not learn to become excellent comprehenders of any given type of text without substantial experience reading and writing it. Thus, for example, all the experience in the world reading storybooks will not, by itself, enable a student to read, understand, and critique procedural forms of text of the sort found in how to books, instructions manuals, and the like. Students will not learn to become excellent comprehenders of any given type of text without substantial experience reading and writing it. Thus, for example, all the experience in the world reading storybooks will not, by itself, enable a student to read, understand, and critique procedural forms of text of the sort found in how to books, instructions manuals, and the like.

    44. A special note on the narrative centrism in primary instruction Why shouldnt we just focus on stories? We surely want to include instruction and activities in response to stories, but We dont want to limit our instruction and activities to stories The range issue The power of information Individual differences in preference and interest

    45. Vocabulary/Concept Development It really matters Later today

    46. Enabling skills: Decoding, Fluency, and Monitoring Substantial facility in the accurate and automatic decoding of words. Necessary but not sufficient for comprehension In a recent review of the literature, Pressley (2000) argues compellingly that skilled decoding is necessary, though by no means sufficient, for skilled comprehension. In a recent review of the literature, Pressley (2000) argues compellingly that skilled decoding is necessary, though by no means sufficient, for skilled comprehension.

    47. When rules get in the way

    48. Writing Lots of time spent writing texts for others to comprehend. Again, students should experience writing the range of genres we wish them to be able to comprehend. Their instruction should emphasize connections between reading and writing, developing students abilities to write like a reader and read like a writer.

    49. Why Writing Helps Reading You cant write without reading: the writers first reader. When you write, you often seek information through reading Writing makes the metaphor constructing a model of meaning completely explicit. Writing helps us decide what we really think about a topic (stares back at you). Writing makes metacognition transparent (makes monitoring visible)

    50. Why Writing Helps Reading Writing reinforces some reading processes An authentic context for phonemic awareness (listen to the word in parts, match a letter to each part) Examining claim and support is like unearthing the relationship between MI and Details By the way, reading helps writing too--by providing good models of well-crafted prose, spelling, and punctuation.