The Heart. The Heart. Position Structure Function Electricity Pathology Diagnostic Tests. Position of the Heart. Located between the lungs in the thoracic cavity Centered in the chest. Structure of the Heart. The size of your heart is comparable to the size of your fist.
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The Heart • Position • Structure • Function • Electricity • Pathology • Diagnostic Tests
Position of the Heart • Located between the lungs in the thoracic cavity • Centered in the chest
Structure of the Heart • The size of your heart is comparable to the size of your fist.
Structure of the Heart • The heart is enclosed in a protective membrane called the pericardium. • The inner layer: visceral pericardium • The outer layer: parietal pericardium
Structure of the Heart • The walls of the heart are mostly made up of myocardium (heart muscle) • Consists of parietal pericardium, fatty tissue, coronary vessels, pericardial space, visceral pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium • Turn to page 375
Structure of the Heart Septum • Left • Right
Structure of the Heart • 4 Chambers: • The upper chambers: the right & left atrium • The lower chambers: the right & left ventricle • The atria are smaller, thinner than the muscular ventricles of the heart • Myocardium in the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle • moves blood to greater distances in the body
Structure of the Heart • 4 Valves 2 valves separating the atria and the ventricles • Bicuspid (Mitral) valve on the left side • Tricuspid valve on the right side
Structure of the Heart 2 valves exiting the ventricles • Aortic Semilunar valve exiting the right ventricle • Pulmonary Semilunar valve exiting the left ventricle
Structure of the Heart • Bicuspid and Tricuspid valves • Held in place by Chordaetendineae which helps prevent backflow
Function of the Heart • Consists of a double-pump • Left side of the heart moves blood throughout the body and returns it to the right atrium • (Systemic Circuit) • Right side of the heart moves blood to the lungs and returns it to the left atrium • (Pulmonary Circuit)
Function of the Heart • Blood Circulation • Brings Oxygen and Nutrients to the body • Removes Carbon Dioxide and wastes out of the body
Electricity of the Heart • Electrical signals (impulses) rhythmically keep the heart pumping • Each complete heartbeat is considered a “Cardiac Cycle” • Each cycle takes approximately 0.8 secs
Electricity of the Heart • Contractions of the heart • Systole • Relaxation of the heart • Diastole
Electricity of the Heart • Impulses follow a continuous pattern • Sinoatrialnode (SA) node • Atrioventricular (AV) node • AV bundle or bundle of His • Purkenjefibers
Pathology of the Heart • Cardiac disease can be... Structural Electrical
Pathology of the Heart • Terms of structural problems • Angina pectoris • Cardiac tamponade • Cardiomegaly • Cardiomyopathy • Congestive heart failure • Coronary embolism • Endocarditis
Pathology of the Heart • Terms of structural problems con’t • Incompetent valve • Mitral valve prolapse • Myocardial infarction • Pericarditis • Pericardial effusion • Rheumatic heart disease • Stenosed valve
Pathology of the Heart • Terms for Electrical problems: • Bradycardia • Dysrhythmia • Extrasystoles • PACs & PVCs • Fibrillation • atrial & ventricular • Sinus dysrhythmia • Tachycardia
Diagnostic Tests • Angiography • Cardiac catheterization • Echocardiography • Electrocardiography • Holter monitoring • Magnetic resonance imaging • Stress test
References • Causey, L. (Designer). (2011). small_fist [Image], Retrieved January 28, 2012, from:http://www.aperfectworld.org/clipart/gestures/fist_small.png • [Image of electricity]. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from: http://www.hsbwhistlestop.com/agents/express/img/2010_04/img_electric_lg.jpg • [Image of electrocardiogram]. January 30, 2012, from: http://www.squarecirclez.com/blog/math-of-ecgs-fourier-series/4281 • [Image of heart in thoracic cavity]. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nursing/practice/resources/cardiology/images/cut_away_chest.gif • [Image of one way valve]. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from: http://www.swimmingpoolspares.com.au/index.php?cPath=79_106_161 • [Image of pericardium]. Retrieved on January 30 2012, from: http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Figueroa_EL/Fourth%20Grade/mysterytomedicine4.htm • Louwinger, O. Whelan, G. & Taddei, M. (2007). The Human Body Book. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. • Thibodeau, G. A. & Patton, K. T. (2010). The Human Body in Health & Disease (5th ed.). St.Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.