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The Heart

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  1. The Heart

  2. The Heart • Position • Structure • Function • Electricity • Pathology • Diagnostic Tests

  3. Position of the Heart • Located between the lungs in the thoracic cavity • Centered in the chest

  4. Structure of the Heart • The size of your heart is comparable to the size of your fist.

  5. Structure of the Heart • The heart is enclosed in a protective membrane called the pericardium. • The inner layer: visceral pericardium • The outer layer: parietal pericardium

  6. Structure of the Heart • The walls of the heart are mostly made up of myocardium (heart muscle) • Consists of parietal pericardium, fatty tissue, coronary vessels, pericardial space, visceral pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium • Turn to page 375

  7. Structure of the Heart Septum • Left • Right

  8. Structure of the Heart • 4 Chambers: • The upper chambers: the right & left atrium • The lower chambers: the right & left ventricle • The atria are smaller, thinner than the muscular ventricles of the heart • Myocardium in the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle • moves blood to greater distances in the body

  9. Structure of the Heart • 4 Valves 2 valves separating the atria and the ventricles • Bicuspid (Mitral) valve on the left side • Tricuspid valve on the right side

  10. Structure of the Heart 2 valves exiting the ventricles • Aortic Semilunar valve exiting the right ventricle • Pulmonary Semilunar valve exiting the left ventricle

  11. Structure of the Heart • Bicuspid and Tricuspid valves • Held in place by Chordaetendineae which helps prevent backflow

  12. Function of the Heart • Consists of a double-pump • Left side of the heart moves blood throughout the body and returns it to the right atrium • (Systemic Circuit) • Right side of the heart moves blood to the lungs and returns it to the left atrium • (Pulmonary Circuit)

  13. Function of the Heart • Blood Circulation • Brings Oxygen and Nutrients to the body • Removes Carbon Dioxide and wastes out of the body

  14. Electricity of the Heart • Electrical signals (impulses) rhythmically keep the heart pumping • Each complete heartbeat is considered a “Cardiac Cycle” • Each cycle takes approximately 0.8 secs

  15. Electricity of the Heart • Contractions of the heart • Systole • Relaxation of the heart • Diastole

  16. Electricity of the Heart • Impulses follow a continuous pattern • Sinoatrialnode (SA) node • Atrioventricular (AV) node • AV bundle or bundle of His • Purkenjefibers

  17. Pathology of the Heart • Cardiac disease can be... Structural Electrical

  18. Pathology of the Heart • Terms of structural problems • Angina pectoris • Cardiac tamponade • Cardiomegaly • Cardiomyopathy • Congestive heart failure • Coronary embolism • Endocarditis

  19. Pathology of the Heart • Terms of structural problems con’t • Incompetent valve • Mitral valve prolapse • Myocardial infarction • Pericarditis • Pericardial effusion • Rheumatic heart disease • Stenosed valve

  20. Pathology of the Heart • Terms for Electrical problems: • Bradycardia • Dysrhythmia • Extrasystoles • PACs & PVCs • Fibrillation • atrial & ventricular • Sinus dysrhythmia • Tachycardia

  21. Diagnostic Tests • Angiography • Cardiac catheterization • Echocardiography • Electrocardiography • Holter monitoring • Magnetic resonance imaging • Stress test

  22. References • Causey, L. (Designer). (2011). small_fist [Image], Retrieved January 28, 2012, from:http://www.aperfectworld.org/clipart/gestures/fist_small.png • [Image of electricity]. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from: http://www.hsbwhistlestop.com/agents/express/img/2010_04/img_electric_lg.jpg • [Image of electrocardiogram]. January 30, 2012, from: http://www.squarecirclez.com/blog/math-of-ecgs-fourier-series/4281 • [Image of heart in thoracic cavity]. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nursing/practice/resources/cardiology/images/cut_away_chest.gif • [Image of one way valve]. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from: http://www.swimmingpoolspares.com.au/index.php?cPath=79_106_161 • [Image of pericardium]. Retrieved on January 30 2012, from: http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Figueroa_EL/Fourth%20Grade/mysterytomedicine4.htm • Louwinger, O. Whelan, G. & Taddei, M. (2007). The Human Body Book. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. • Thibodeau, G. A. & Patton, K. T. (2010). The Human Body in Health & Disease (5th ed.). St.Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.