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Introduction to Radiography
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Introduction to Radiography

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  1. Introduction to Radiography Terms and Definitions

  2. Anatomic Terminology • Anatomic position • Erect, face forward, feet together, arms at sides with palms forward

  3. Anatomic Terminology • Plane - Flat surface passed through the body or a portion of the body • Longitudinal planes • Coronal • Sagittal • Horizontal plane • Transverse transverse mid-sagittal coronal

  4. anterior posterior lateral cephalad cephalic superior cranial lateral proximal inferior caudal caudad medial distal Directional Terms posterior anterior

  5. Joint Movement Terms ABDUCT vs. ADDUCT

  6. Joint Movement Terms FLEXION vs. EXTENSION hyperextend extend flexion flexion extension dorsiflexion plantar flexion neutral

  7. Joint Movement Terms INVERSION vs. EVERSION turn inward or medially turn outward or laterally

  8. Joint Movement Terms PRONATION vs. SUPINATION place on back place on front

  9. Joint Movement Terms ROTATION vs. CIRCUMDUCTION pivot circle

  10. Body Position Terms Describe the overall placement of the body • Erect "upright" • Position when the sagittal and coronal planes of the body are perpendicular to the horizon • Recumbent "lying down" • Position when the transverse plane of the body is perpendicular to the horizon

  11. Body Position Terms decubitus vs. recumbent • general meanings are the same "LYING DOWN" • but in radiography, decubitus has a special meaning • DECUBITUS • patient is lying down & the x-ray beam is parallel to the horizon

  12. Erect Positions • Surface of body closest to the film used to give a more specific description • Examples: • Posterior erect -- patient is standing with the posterior surface of the body next to the cassette • Left lateral erect -- patient is standing with the left side of the body next to the cassette Left lateral erect position

  13. Recumbent Positions • Supine (posterior recumbent position) • Lying down on the back • Prone (anterior recumbent position) • Lying face down • xx lateral recumbent • lying down on the xx side

  14. Oblique (Erect or Recumbent) • Position when the body is rotated so that the MS plane is neither ^ nor ¤¤ to the film but at an angle • Exact position is indicated by the surface closest to the film and the angle of rotation • May be erect or recumbent • abbreviations: • RPO, LPO, RAO, LAO 45° RPO

  15. Decubitus Positions • Ventral decubitus • patient is prone & a horizontal beam is used • Dorsal decubitus • patient is supine & a horizontal beam is used • Left lateral decubitus • patient lying on the left lateral side & a horizontal beam is used

  16. PROJECTION • Refers to the path the beam takes through part Anteroposterior projection (AP) • Beam enters the front surface and exits the back surface of the part Posteroanterior projection (PA) • Beam enters the back and exits the front of the part AP projection in supine position PA projection in prone position

  17. Lateral Projections • Normally the positioning terminology is used rather than projection • torso and head • Right to left lateral projection • Left to right lateral projection • extremities • Mediolateral projection • Lateromedial projection L lateral erect position R to L lateral projection

  18. Oblique Projections • Normally the positioning terminology is used • example RPO position = right anterior to right posterior projection (oblique AP)

  19. Radiographpy vs Nuclear Medicine Radiography – source of radiation is external. Gamma rays pass through body and form radiograph Nuclear Medicine – source of radiation is radiopharmaceutical taken internally. X-rays pass out of body and form scan image.

  20. Ionization • Ability of x-rays to change substances thru which they pass • Used to make radiographs and treat cancer • May cause cell damage and even death

  21. Nuclear Scan • Can give picture of both structure and function • Use radiopharma-ceutical to produce image

  22. Common Scans • Bone – fractures, tumors, inflammation, bone growth • Brain – tumors, blood flow • Liver – cirrhosis, hepatitis, tumors, cysts, abscesses • Lung – blood clots, tumors • Thyroid – function, tumors

  23. Radioimmunoassay • Mix blood with radioactive substance to determine specific blood protein concentrations • Find antibodies and antigens (titers)

  24. Radiation Therapy • Treatment of CA with external radiation • Stereotactic – focusing multiple beams at the same spot

  25. Teletherapy vs Bradytherapy Teletherapy – radiation source is external Bradytherapy – radiation source is internal

  26. Tomography • Imaging method that produces tomes (cross sections) of body along any plane

  27. CAT vs PET • CAT – 2D tomes are reconstructed to show 3D images of structure • PET – radiopharmecuticals are used to give 2D and 3D images of function

  28. Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Media – radio waves and a strong magnetic field • Gives good image of soft tissues • Cannot use if metal is implanted in body

  29. Sonogram • Media – sound waves • Gives image of deep structures • Only imaging procedure safe for fetus

  30. Thermogram • Media – infrared camera captures surface body heat • Newer forms relate metabolic activity (function) to heat give off

  31. Contract Medium • Radio-opaque substance used to make hard-to-see structure show up on image • Used in CAT scans and fluoroscopy

  32. Radio-opaque vs Radiolucent Radio-opaque - Block x-rays Shows up as light color Radiolucent – Passes x-rays thru’ Shows up as dark color

  33. Fluoroscopy Visualization of moving structures Used with radio-opaque substances