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Inter-Act, 13 th Edition. Chapter 11 Interpersonal Influence. Chapter Objectives. Discuss the sources and principles of interpersonal power Describe the processing of influence attempts Describe the types of effective persuasive messages

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Inter-Act, 13th Edition

Chapter 11

Interpersonal Influence

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Discuss the sources and principles of interpersonal power
  • Describe the processing of influence attempts
  • Describe the types of effective persuasive messages
  • Discuss how to form messages that assert our rights and preferences without damaging our relationships
interpersonal influence power
Interpersonal Influence & Power

Influence: The act of changing the attitudes or behaviors of others

Power: The potential that you have to influence the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of someone else

sources of interpersonal power
Sources of Interpersonal Power
  • Coercive – perception that a person can harm us physically or psychologically
  • Reward – perception that a person can provide monetary, physical, or psychological benefits
  • Legitimate – power derived from being elected, selected, or holding a position of influence
  • Expert – power derived from having knowledge that partner does not
  • Referent – power derived from the respect and admiration of others
principles of power
Principles of Power
  • Power is a perception, not a fact.
  • Power exists within a relationship.
  • Power is not inherently good nor bad.
  • The person with more power can make and break the rules for the relationship.
persuasion
Persuasion

Using verbal messages designed to influence the attitudes and behaviors of others

elaboration likelihood model elm
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
  • Theory that people will use mental shortcuts or critical thinking skills when processing persuasive messages

Peripheral vs. Central

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ELM

Peripheral Route

CentralRoute

  • Automatic processing
  • Six heuristics guide behavior:
    • Reciprocity
    • Social proof
    • Liking
    • Authority
    • Consistency
    • Scarcity
  • Conscious processing
  • Critical thinking skills
  • We use when:
    • The issue is important
    • We feel capable of analyzing and understanding the issue
persuading extensive processors
Persuading Extensive Processors
  • Quality of the reasoning
    • Relevant
    • Well supported
    • Meaningful
  • Source credibility
    • Competence (perception that the speaker is well qualified to provide accurate and reliable information)
    • Trustworthiness (dependable, honest, keep promises, act for the good of others more than for self)
    • Likability (congeniality, attractiveness, warmth, friendliness)
  • Honest emotional appeals
    • Effectiveness depends on mood/attitude of partner and word choice
asserting rights and expectations
Asserting Rights and Expectations
  • Passive – reluctant to state opinions, share feelings
  • Aggressive – lash out with little regard for the situation or for the feelings, needs, or rights of others
  • Passive-aggressive – exhibiting aggressive behavior by being unresponsive or stubborn or refusing to help
  • Assertive – truthfully expressing rights and needs while respecting others
passive approach
Passive Approach
  • Concealing feelings rather than voicing rights and expectations
  • Usually ineffective
  • Causes
    • We may not believe we have rights
    • Fear that complaining will damage relationship
    • Lack self-esteem
    • Lack social skills to stand up for ourselves
aggressive approach
Aggressive Approach
  • Name-calling, threatening, judging, faultfinding
  • Passive-aggressive behavior: messages indirectly express hostility (stubbornness, unresponsiveness, etc.)
  • Different from argumentativeness: defending our own ideas or attacking the reasoning of others while giving them respect
social media flaming
Social Media Flaming
  • Flaming: sending an aggressive message using social media

Microsoft Office

assertive approach
Assertive Approach
  • Declaring and defending personal rights/expectations in clear, direct, and honest manner while respecting the rights of others
  • Focuses on interests of both parties
  • Being assertive involves risk that you will be perceived as aggressive.
assertive message skills
Assertive Message Skills
  • Owning: Make “I” statements.
  • Describing behavior and feelings.
  • Doing positive and negative facework:
    • Be sensitive to the face needs of others.
  • Using appropriate nonverbal behaviors:
    • Maintain regular eye contact and a self-confident posture.
    • Use a firm but pleasant tone of voice.
making a complaint
Making a Complaint
  • Begin by doing facework.
    • Assume the violation was unintentional.
  • Describe what has happened that you believe violates your rights/expectations.
  • Explain why what has happened violates your rights/expectations.
  • Describe how you feel about what has happened.
  • Invite the person to comment on or paraphrase what you said.
making a request
Making a Request
  • Politely but directly describe what you want the other person to do.
  • Do facework.
  • Describe how the behavior violates your rights/expectations.
  • Offer an alternative to your partner’s unacceptable behavior.
  • Assume compliance and thank him or her.
refusing a request
Refusing a Request
  • Thank people for what they are asking you to do.
  • Directly own that you are not willing to agree to the request.
  • State a generalized reason for your refusal, but don’t feel obligated to disclose private thoughts.
            • When possible, offer an alternative.
cultural variations
Cultural Variations
  • Asian cultures are less likely to engage in assertiveness in an effort to maintain harmony.
  • In Latin and Hispanic societies the concept of “machismo” often guides male behavior that

goes beyond assertiveness.

  • Assertive behavior is practiced primarily in Western cultures.
extra credit
Extra Credit
  • P341, Observe and Analyze
  • For the next day or two, observe people and their behaviors. Make notes of situations in which you believe people behaved in passive, aggressive, and assertive ways. Which ways seemed to help people achieve what they wanted? Which ways seemed to maintain or even improve their interpersonal relationships with others?