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Agenda Today 2/3 “Three Cups of Tea” check-Go over midterms Tomorrow 2/4 WWI Notes * HW: for next Tuesday read the introduction and chapters 1-3 in “Three Cups of Tea”
Crises and Achievement Unit • Science and technology brought many benefits to society in the late 1800, and early 1900s. In most industrialized countries, life expectancy increased and standards of living rose. People became hopeful, for they had experienced peace for many years. • However, the forces of nationalism, militarism, and imperialism were moving the world toward war.
Crises and Achievement Unit • By the time World War I was over, people understood how science and technology could change their lives in negative ways. • The war caused new social and economic problems. • In Russia, a communist revolution produced a totalitarian state. Perhaps worst of all, the problems that had led to World War I remained unresolved. A second global conflict erupted in 1939, resulting in even greater destruction than the first.
Crises and Achievement Sections • World War I • Russian Revolution • Between the Wars • World War II
World War I • As the 1900s began the people of Europe had enjoyed nearly a century of relative peace. • At the same time, forces were pushing the continent toward war. • Although the world seemed at peace in the early 1900s, powerful forces were pushing Europe toward war. • These forces included nationalism, militarism, imperial rivalries, alliance systems, and the decline of the Ottoman empire.
Causes M.A.I.N Militarism • During the late 1800s, militarism, the glorification of military power, arose in many nations of Europe. • This development led to fear and suspicion as nations became more willing to use military force to attain their national goals.
Causes M.A.I.N Militarism • There was an arms race, in which the great powers competed with each other to expand their armies and navies. • One of the fiercest rivalries was between Britain and Germany.
Causes M.A.I.N Alliance System • Increased tensions and suspicions led nations to form alliances. • Nations agreed to defend each other in case of attack. By 1914, there were several alliances.
Causes M.A.I.N Alliance System • The two most important were the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. • The triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Entente consisted of Britain, France, and Russia.
Causes M.A.I.N Imperialism and Economic Rivalry • Britain, France, Germany, and other nations competed for colonies and economic power. • France and Germany competed especially for colonial gains in Africa.
Causes M.A.I.N Imperialism and Economic Rivalry • Britain and Germany competed industrially. • Germany had industrialized rapidly, and the British felt threatened by this. • Because of their mutual competition with Germany, Britain and France began to form close ties with each other.
Causes M.A.I.N Nationalism • As you have learned, nationalism can bring people together. It can also, however, be a source of conflict. In Europe in the early 1900s, aggressive nationalism was a source of tension.
Causes M.A.I.N Nationalism • Nationalism was strong in both Germany and France. • Germany, now unified, was proud of its growing military and industrial strength. • France, meanwhile, wanted to regain its position as a leading European power.
Causes M.A.I.N Nationalism • It had lost the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. • Besides having to pay money to Germany, France lost the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Many of the French people wanted revenge on Germany.
Causes M.A.I.N Nationalism • Russia had encouraged a form of nationalism in Eastern Europe called Pan-Slavism. • The movement tried to draw together all Slavic peoples. Russia was the largest Slavic country, and it was ready to defend Serbia, a young Slavic nation in the Balkans.
Causes M.A.I.N Nationalism • Throughout the Balkans, in fact, small Slavic populations looked to Russia for leadership in their desire for unity. • The multinational empire of Austria-Hungary opposed Slavic national movements.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Other situations also set the stage for war. • The Ottoman empire had become weak. British relations with the empire became strained after Britain signed an agreement with Russia. • Germany, on the other hand had taken an interest in establishing good relations with the Ottoman empire.
The Armenian Massacres • Nationalistic feelings had caused periodic waves of violence against Armenians since the 1890s. • New violence was a brutal result of the rivalry between Turkey, which ruled the Ottoman empire, and Russia. • The Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians, believing that they supported Russia against the Ottoman empire.
The Armenian Massacres • When Armenians protested oppressive Ottoman policies, the Turks unleashed a massacre on the Armenians. • Additional massacres leading to the deaths of a million or more Armenians occurred over the next 25 years.
The Balkan Powder Keg • The Ottoman empire's control over the Balkans had weakened over time. • Serbia declared its independence in 1878, hoping, to build a Slavic state in alliance with Russia. • Serbia wanted control of Bosniaand Herzegovina, two provinces that would give landlocked Serbia an outlet to the Adriatic Sea.
The Balkan Powder Keg • These provinces, however, were Ottoman provinces administered by Austria-Hungary. • Austria opposed Serbian ambitions, fearing that the same kind of nationalism would spread to its own multinational empire. • Also, Austria-Hungary feared Russian expansion.
The Balkan Powder Keg • Tensions grew, and in 1912, Serbia and its allies attacked the Ottoman empire. • The great European powers were all interested in gaining lands from the crumbling empire. • By 1914, the Balkans were known as the "powder keg of Europe." • Any small spark was likely to lead to an explosion.
Agenda • Monday-WWI Notes-Midterm Grades • Collect Chap 28 Sec 1-3,5 • Tuesday-Go Over Midterms-Bring in the “Three Cups of Tea” book. Read the introduction. • Wednesday-WWI Notes • Thursday-Quiz on WWI. • Friday- WWI Notes • Next Wednesday (2/18) Test on WWI • Next Thursday (2/19) Quiz on Chapters 1-3 in “Three Cups of Tea”
The “Spark” • Not surprisingly, World War I began in the Balkans. Although many Serbs lived in Bosnia, it was still ruled by Austria-Hungary. Serbian nationalists felt that Bosnia belonged to Serbia. • Archduke Francis Ferdinandwas the heir to the Austrian throne. On June 28, 1914, the duke and his wife were traveling through Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Gavrilo Princip, a member of a radical Slavic nationalist group that opposed Austrian rule, shot and killed the archduke and his wife.
The Ultimatum • On July 23, Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum, a set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences. • The ultimatum demanded that Serbia allow Austro-Hungarian officials to suppress all Serbian subversive movements and to investigate the archduke’s murder.
After the Assassination • The major nations of Europe responded. Each hostile action led to another hostile action. • Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the murders of the archduke and his wife and made harsh demands in Serbia. • Serbia refused to comply with any of the demands. • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28. • Russia, a Slavic nation and a friend of Serbia, mobilized its forces in preparation for war. • Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia.
After the Assassination • Germany declared war on France, an ally of Russia. • Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914, so that German forces could enter France more easily. • Britain declared war on Germany.
Central Powers and Allied Powers • The two opposing sides in World War I were the Central Powers and the Allied Powers. The Central Powerswere Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire (later joined by Bulgaria). • On the other side were the Allied Powers: Britain, France, and Russia. Italy at first remained neutral, but it eventually joined the Allies. Other nations, including the United States, also joined the Allies later.
Who is to blame? • Germany • Russia • Austria-Hungary • Britain • France • In your opinion, who was to blame for WWI? State the country and the reason why they are to blame.
Agenda for Today • Today-Notes on WWI • Tomorrow-Quiz on WWI. • Next Wednesday (2/18) Test on WWI • Next Thursday (2/19) Quiz on Chapters 1-3 in “Three Cups of Tea”
Central Powers and Allied Powers • There were three major fronts in Europe where fighting occurred. • The Western Front extended across Belgium and northeastern France to the border of Switzerland. • The Eastern Front ran from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. • The Southern Front ran between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Fighting also took place in Africa and the Middle East.
Battle of the Marne • On September 5, 1914, the French and German armies collided in northeastern France in the Battle of the Marne. • After four days of shelling, the French finally pushed the Germans back a distance of about 50 miles from Paris, saving the city. • Although German forces continued to hold much of France’s heavily industrialized areas, the German retreat made it clear that neither side was capable of defeating the other quickly or easily.
Tannenberg • By August 13, 1914, the Russians had invaded East Prussia from the south and from the east, diverting German troops from the Western Front. • At the end of August, Russian and German troops met at Tannenberg in present-day Poland. There the Germans were able to encircle and destroy the Russian army.
Stalemate • After the Battle of the Marne, the Germans and the Allies began a series of battles known as “the race to the sea,” with each attempting to reach the North Sea first and outflank the other. • By November 1914, the war had reached a stalemate in a line extending from the Swiss border to the English Channel.
Trench Warfare • Heavy fighting took place along the Western Front, a 600-mile stretch from the English Channel to Switzerland. The Germans hoped to win anearly victory there, but French and British troops stopped them. For four years, neither side could make any significant gains. • Trench warfarebegan, so called because the troops dug trenches, along the front. Very little ground was gained by either side in this way, and many soldiers were killed.
Verdun and the Somme • In February 1916, the Germans staged a surprise attack against French forces at Verdun, a massive fortress in northeastern France on the Meuse River. • The French, under General Henri-Philippe Pétain, held firm for six months until the Germans abandoned their attack. • The Battle of Verdun was one of the bloodiest of the war, causing both sides to suffer more than a half-million casualties.
Verdun and the Somme • Later that year, the British, aided by France, launched a similar offensive against the Germans in the Somme River valley in northern France. • The Battle of the Somme turned out to be as terrible and inconclusive as the one at Verdun, costing the Germans about 500,000 men, the British 400,000, and the French 200,000.
Industrialized War • World War I was a war between groups of major industrial powers. • New technology made this war an enormously destructive one. • For example. Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel had invented dynamite in 1867. Used in mining and construction, it also became important in weaponry. Many of the other recent inventions of the time—the internal combustion engine, the airplane, and communications devices—were also put to military use.
New Air and Sea Weapons • World War I was the first war to make full use of modern technology and machinery. Technology changed methods of warfare greatly.
Civilian Life and Total War • The war was fought at home as well as on the battlefield. A war fought in this way is called a total war. • In a total war, all of a nation's resources go into the war effort. • Governments drafted men to fight in the war. • Governments raised taxes and borrowed money to pay for the war.
Civilian Life and Total War • Governments used the press to print propaganda, the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. • Women at home took jobs that the soldiers had left behind. Some women joined the armed services. Other women went to the fronts as nurses.
Agenda • Today-Finish notes on WWI and go over propaganda posters • Next Wednesday (2/18) Test on WWI • Next Thursday (2/19) Quiz on Chapters 1-3 in “Three Cups of Tea” • Who needs to take the WWI quiz?
Major Turning Points • Several events that took place during World War I are seen as major turning points. They include the withdrawal of Russia from the war and the entry of the United States into the war. Russian Withdrawal • In Russia, low morale contributed to a revolution in 1917. Early in 1918, Russia's new leader signed a treaty with Germany that took Russia out of the war.