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What counts as evidence in linguistics?

What counts as evidence in linguistics?

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What counts as evidence in linguistics?

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  1. What counts as evidence in linguistics?

  2. WHAT IS UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR? A system of grammatical rules and constraints believed to underlie all natural languages

  3. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  4. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  5. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  6. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  7. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  8. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  9. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  10. What counts as evidence for innateness claims • Species-specificity • domain-specificity • the logical problem of language acquisition • genetic evidence • Universality and topological evidence

  11. Brief History

  12. Brief History • The 19th century: evolutionary biology

  13. Brief History • The 19th century: evolutionary biology • Early 20th century: sociology and psychology

  14. Brief History • The 19th century: evolutionary biology • Early 20th century: sociology and psychology • End of the 20th century: cognitive psychology/sciences

  15. Popper and the principle of the falsification A scientist, whether theorist or experimenter, puts forward statements, or systems of statements, and tests them step by step. In the field of empirical sciences, more particularly, he constructs hypotheses, or systems of theories, and tests them against experience by observation and experiment. Popper.

  16. EXPERIMENT By Johnson, Ohio state university, Columbus, Ohio

  17. Given sentences

  18. For the sentences in table 1 this point should be between the 3rd and 4th for list 1 sentences . For the list 2- between the 5th and 6th words, and between the 2nd and 3rd

  19. Results To test the difference between the groups each S scored for the total number of words given correctly for the total number of words given correctly across the 13 trials. The mean for group 1 is 337, for group 2 is 365.

  20. Analysis

  21. first phrase of the list 1 sentences. The probabilities were computed across all sentences and all Ss.

  22. Common misconceptions concerning the nature of the linguistic data • “Psychologically real” data

  23. Common misconceptions concerning the nature of the linguistic data • “Psychologically real” data • Spontaneous speech data as privileged evidence

  24. Common misconceptions concerning the nature of the linguistic data • “Psychologically real” data • Spontaneous speech data as privileged evidence • Competence data VS performance data

  25. Types of empirical data (i) qualitative vs. quantitative data, (ii) direct vs. indirect evidence, (iii) spontaneous vs. elicited data.

  26. Types of empirical data (i)qualitative vs. quantitative data (ii) direct vs. indirect evidence (iii) spontaneous vs. elicited data

  27. Types of empirical data (i) qualitative vs. quantitative data (ii) direct vs. indirect evidence (iii) spontaneous vs. elicited data

  28. Types of empirical data (i) qualitative vs. quantitative data, (ii) direct vs. indirect evidence, (iii) spontaneous vs. elicited data

  29. “Third kind” of evidence …Computer modeling