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Disaster Management and India: Responding Internally and Simultaneously in Neighboring Countries Kailash Gupta University of North Texas 14 th Annual FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Conference, Emmitsburg, MD, June 06-09, 2011. India. Context of the country.
Disaster Management and India: Responding Internally and Simultaneously in Neighboring Countries Kailash Gupta University of North Texas 14th Annual FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Conference, Emmitsburg, MD, June 06-09, 2011
India Kailash Gupta
Context of the country • 1.2 billion population • 72% live in rural areas • 60% work in agriculture • 28% are below the poverty line • 35% are illiterate • 600 languages • 500 m. without electricity (Human Development Report 2007) • secular state • largest democracy Kailash Gupta
Context of the country (cont.) • Has one of the oldest cultures • Historically, a rich country • Over four centuries foreign rule and other factors made India poor • Forecasted to become one of the economic super powers Kailash Gupta
Vulnerability • The greatest challenges India faces in Disaster Management are poverty, illiteracy, apathy, and corruption. Kailash Gupta
History of Disasters • Famine: 10m or 1/3 pop died in 1769-70, 5.5m died in 1876-78, and 20m died in 1943 • Earthquake: 7,928 died in Latur in 1993; 20,000 died in Gujarat 2001; 15,000 died in the 2004 Tsunami • Floods: average 1,588 deaths per year • Cyclone: 10,000 deaths in Orissa Super Cyclone in 1999 • Technological hazards: 3,828 instantaneous deaths in Bhopal in 1984 • Others: Terrorism, mid-air collision, accidents Kailash Gupta
History of Disasters (cont.) • Had some of the worst disasters and of every kind • India should hang her head in shame. With Bengal famine…and many other disasters, there is no foyer in the world with space large enough to exhibit the collective pain on the face of India (Kapur et al 2005, 2) Kailash Gupta
Laws • World’s first Famine Relief Act (1880) • Disaster Management was relief driven • Gujarat Disaster Management Act (2003) mandates every citizen to help administration • Disaster Management Act (2005) created National Disaster Management Authority and DM plans, etc. • Paradigm shifting to mitigation, prevention, and preparedness Kailash Gupta
Structure • National Institute of Disaster Management at national level • DM cell in the Administrative Training Institute in states • Large National Calamity Fund • DM plans and EOCs • DM program with UNDP • DM education started from 8th grade in 2003 • Poised to be a future leader in DM Kailash Gupta
Responding internally and simultaneously in neighboring countries • After tsunami India refused foreign government aid as it was self-sufficient. • India deployed its defense personnel, medical teams, disaster experts, ships, helicopters, and human and other resources to help Sri Lanka, Mauritius, and Indonesia. • India was also responding internally to the aftermath of the tsunami. • India is lower income group country, while Indonesia is middle-income group country. Kailash Gupta
Questions Thanks Kailash Gupta email@example.com Kailash Gupta